Bramhope Tunnel, West Yorkshire


Bramhope Tunnel – North Eastern Railway
1910s
Publisher: The Alphalsa Publishing Co., Ltd., 284, Scrutton St, London

Google Street View.

The Bramhope Tunnel is a railway tunnel 2.138 miles (3,745 Yards) long built for the Leeds and Thirsk Railway, the Leeds Northern Railway and the East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway, which together later became the North Eastern Railway. 1845-49 It was constructed on the Harrogate Line, carrying rural and commuter passengers between Horsforth and Weeton in West Yorkshire, England. It is notable for its length, for its crenellated north portal, which is Grade II listed, and for the deaths of 24 men during its construction, commemorated in Otley churchyard with a castellated replica of the north portal.

It was constructed by Thomas Grainger, engineer and James Bray, overseer, who set up two sighting towers and then twenty shafts along the line of the tunnel. Men dug horizontally from these shafts until the diggings joined up in 1848. Thousands of navvies lived locally in bothies with their families, and dug in dangerous and wet conditions to facilitate the grand opening in 1849.
Grace’s Guide to British Industrial History

The foundation stone was laid at Shaft 1 in July 1846, once a shaft was finished teams of miners were lowered down to create header tunnels, smaller 8ft x 8ft tunnels shored up by beams and joined up to make a complete mini version of the tunnel. This ensured the line was true and made communication easier. Behind the miners, labourers laid a line of temporary rails for spoil to be removed. Once the headers were complete the excavation was worked in lengths of 12ft, the excavators would move to the opposing side of the shaft and begin digging there while a team of labourers and bricklayers would take their place and begin building the tunnel walls. On Bramhope tunnel there was a total of 22 teams working at any one time, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
. . .
Each end of the tunnel received very different treatment, the Gothic north portal was given a castellated finish (now grade II listed) containing rooms used by railway staff. The south entrance is very plain by comparison, a sandstone horseshoe-shaped arch below a cornice and a parapet. The tunnel was completed November 27th, 1848 and the first train went through it May 31st, Leeds and Thirsk railway officials pulled by Bray’s locomotive Stephenson.
The Secret Library

Wilson Worsdell’s Class R (LNER D20) was introduced on the North Eastern Railway (NER) in 1899. It proved to be an extremely capable locomotive, but by 1907 there was a need locomotives of greater power to handle the increasing train loads. The NER already had a number of more powerful designs, but these were better suited to more onerous duties. The larger Class S1 (LNER B14) engines were not entirely successful. So Wilson Worsdell’s choice was between building more of his Class V (LNER C6) Atlantics, or designing a larger version of the successful D20. The C6 had not been an unqualified success, so he chose the modify the D20. The new design, NER Class R1 (LNER D21) attempted to combine the wheels and cylinders of the D20 with a larger boiler based on the C6’s boiler. In order to use the larger boiler, the D20 boiler was extended by 2ft at the rear. The boiler pressure was also increased to 225psi, and the grate area was increased from 20 to 27sq.ft. The final locomotive had a high adhesive weight of almost 21 tons, reflecting its intended use on the heaviest expresses, rather than the high speed light trains.

The D21s definitely looked impressive with their large boilers, but they turned out to be not quite as good as either the D20s or the C6s. Hence only one batch was built in 1908-9 at Darlington.
The London & North Eastern Railway Encyclopedia

Chellow Dean Reservoirs, Bradford, West Yorkshire


Chellow Dean, Bradford
Postmarked 1952 but the same image appears on cards postmarked 1909
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

Chellow Dene, Allerton, Bradford, West Yorkshire consists of 2 reservoirs and a narrow woodland that surrounds them. The top reservoir follows the steep contours of the valley right up to the inlet stream. It gradually deepens down to the dam wall with a depth of 20+ feet. The main species are roach, bream, carp, perch, tench, chub, orfe, bullhead and pike. On the lower reservoir you may see Mallards, Canada Geese, Tufted ducks, Moorhens and Coots.
Discover Bradford

The population of the town [of Bradford] had by this time increased to something like 100,000, and mills, workshops, new streets, and public buildings had grown up on every side. In 1842 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the formation of a company to provide Bradford with water. The supply was obtained from an abundant spring at Manywells, in the Hewenden valley. Two storage reservoirs were formed at Chellow Dean, and the town was supplied from a service reser- voir at Whetley Hill. lt became necessary, however, a few years later, to increase the water supply, and in 1854 the necessary Act was obtained and the Corporation bought the works of the company for .£215,000, and proceeded to carry out a fresh scheme of great magnitude.
Post Office Bradford Directory 1887-8, p. 9 (pdf)

The streams running through Heaton are five in number, namely Bradford Beck, Carr Syke Beck, Red Beck, Chellow Dean Beck, and Sandy Lane Beck. Chellow Dean Reservoirs, dividing Heaton from Allerton, collect the waters from the Manywells Spring at Hewenden, and were acquired by the Bradford Corporation from the original private waterworks company. Together with the surrounding woods, the reservoir grounds form an attractive and popular resort during the summer months.
Manningham, Heaton, and Allerton : (townships of Bradford) treated historically and topographically“, 1896, p. 175


The Mercury, 13 June 1913

This week marks the centenary of the death of suffragette Emily Wilding Davison after a collision with the King’s horse at the Epsom Derby. The first week of June 1913 also saw an event in Bradford attributed to suffragette activity with an interesting link to the dyeing industry.
The Fabric of Bradford

Five Rise Locks, Bingley, West Yorkshire


Five Rise Locks
Postmarked: 1907

Google Street View

YouTube: The Story of The Bingley Five Rise Locks – Viewed from Narrowboat and Drone

Bingley Five-rise lock staircase is the most spectacular feature of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. It is situated about half a mile north of Bingley Station, about 17 miles north west of Leeds and about 12 miles south east of Skipton. A lock staircase is where the locks open directly from one to another, with the top gate of one forming the bottom gate of the next. This unique 5-rise staircase has a total rise of 60 feet.
Pennine Waterways (also a lot of photos)

The five-rise opened on 21 March 1774 and was a major feat of engineering at the time. When the locks and therefore the canal from Gargrave to Thackley was opened in 1774, a crowd of 30,000 people turned out to celebrate. The first boat to use the locks took just 28 minutes.
Wikipedia


Bingley Five Rise Locks
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co, Reigate

Armley Goal, Armley, West Yorkshire


Armley Gaol
Publisher: W. Ritchie & Sons (“Reliable series”), 1902-28

Google Street View.

Construction of Leeds Prison (originally named Leeds Borough Gaol) was completed in 1847. Built from locally quarried stone, the prison originally had four wings radiating from a central point in a Victorian architectural style (known as ‘radial’) typical of the time. Each of these four wings had three landings of cells. Eventually Armley Gaol was renamed along with other prisons to make their locations more obvious to people unfamiliar with these areas.
Wikipedia.

Leeds Borough Gaol was completed in 1847 and originally it housed both male and female prisoners. Lilian Ida Lenton (1891 – 1972) was probably the most well-known female prisoner. She was an English Dancer, Suffragist and winner of a French Red Cross Medal for her service as an Orderly in World War I.
comment Mark’s History: The suffragist and dancer imprisoned in Armley’s jail

Armley prison opened in Leeds in the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1847 and was constructed on the then modern penitentiary principal with four radial wings. It was a grim and forbidding building in line with the Victorian ideas of prison and was responsible for housing prisoners sentenced in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It also took over duty of carrying out West Riding executions from York Castle. Ninety three men and one woman were to suffer the death penalty at Armley between 1864 and 1961. An average of almost exactly one per annum.
Capital Punishment U.K.

The grim and forbidding facade of the notorious Victorian jail has dominated the skyline of the proud town of Armley for over 160-years. Its presence spreads an air of notoriety through a town which across the years has grittily got on with its business and has a proud and fascinating industrial history with its clanking mills and bustling factories.
Yorkshire Magazine: Armley Jail– A history of the town and prison”

Ponden Hall, Stanbury, West Yorkshire


Ponden Hall. Interior of “Wuthering Heights”
c.1920

Google Street View.

Website.

Yorkshire Post: Bronte shrine for sale with a home and a thriving business

Ponden Hall is a farmhouse near Stanbury in West Yorkshire, England. It is famous for reputedly being the inspiration for Thrushcross Grange, the home of the Linton family, Edgar, Isabella, and Cathy, in Emily Brontë’s novel Wuthering Heights since Bronte was a frequent visitor. However, it does not match the description given in the novel and is closer in size and appearance to the farmhouse of Wuthering Heights itself. The Brontë biographer Winifred Gerin believed that Ponden Hall was the original of Wildfell Hall, the old mansion where Helen Graham, the protagonist of Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, fled from her husband. Ponden shares certain architectural details with Wildfell: latticed windows, a central portico and date plaque above.
Wikipedia.

The main body of Ponden Hall was built in 1634 by the Heaton family, originally from Lancashire, but who appear to have settled on the hill below the moors, above the small lake of Ponden, in the 1500s. At some point they built another house opposite, Ponden House (now the site of a guesthouse built on the original house’s foundations) – whether that was before, during or after the building of the Hall no one is sure: the evidence we have is ambivalent.
The Reader’s Guide to Wuthering Heights

Weir, Bingley, West Yorkshire


The Weir, Bingley
c.1920
Publisher: F.Pitts, 89 Main Street, Bingley

Google Street View

(The building to the left of the postcard is different to the building shown in the street view and every other picture showing the weir I’ve been able to find. I can only assume it’s a much older picture used decades later on a postcard, until someone who knows something about Bingley happens past.)

A mill extended on the east bank for which a weir was built across the Aire. The water was then funnelled under the mill to power the works which started out as a Corn Mill, a forge and for much of the 20th century was a fat refinery. The mill was demolished in 1984 and the site has now been replaced by housing.
Wikipedia (Ireland Bridge)

The now unused mill race flows under the Northern end of bridge. Here it now serves a pool and weir fish passes to allow fish to cross the weir.
Aire Rivers Trust

Haworth from Stanbury Moor, West Yorkshire

“I know thou wouldn’t rejoice,
To inhale the bracing air,
Thou wouldst break they sweetest sleep,
To behold a scene so fair.”

Haworth from Stanbury More.
1940s
Publisher: Walter Scott, Bradford

Google Street View.

Haworth is a village in City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, in the Pennines, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Keighley, 10 miles (16 km) west of Bradford and 10 miles (16 km) east of Colne in Lancashire. The surrounding areas include Oakworth and Oxenhope. Nearby villages include Cross Roads, Stanbury and Lumbfoot. Haworth is a tourist destination known for its association with the Brontë sisters and the preserved heritage Keighley and Worth Valley Railway.
Wikipedia.

Keighley Shared Church/St Andrew, Keighley, West Yorkshire


Keighley Parish Church
1900s
Publisher: W. Ritchie & Sons (“Reliable series”)

Google Street View (approximate)

A charter of 1168 is the first written evidence of St Andrew Church, Kichalaie (Old English for Keighley) though records go back to the 9th century when monks living in the Minister at Otley served in Keighley. The first church buildings date from the 12th Century and have been replaced several times culminating in the present St Andrew, completed in 1848. The well-established churchyard includes a gravestone dated back to 1690. As Keighley’s industry grew so the town centre church expanded. The relatively modest sized St Andrew’s church was demolished in 1805 and the present larger church was built.
Diocese of Leeds: the Parish of Keighley, p.5

The population of Keighley grew as a market town from the Black Death until the Industrial Revolution in line with the rest of the population of England. The increase in population meant that the medieval church was not large enough. It was blown up in 1805, and a new building erected in 1807. Unfortunately the roof was badly built, so that in 1843 the building had to be demolished and the present building erected in 1848.
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