Tresco Abbey Gardens, Isles of Scilly


Scilly Isles. Old Abbey Ruins. Dracaena in Bloom.
c.1910
Publisher: Pictorial Stationery Co.

Google Street View.

In 1834, Augustus Smith left Hertfordshire and took up residence on the Isles of Scilly as Lord Proprietor and leaseholder of all the islands, choosing Tresco as his home… He selected a site adjacent to St Nicholas Priory – which had fallen into disrepair in the sixteenth century – to build his home. On a rocky outcrop above these ruins, Augustus Smith built his house, which he named Tresco Abbey. In addition to constructing the house, he started almost immediately creating a garden based around the priory ruins. In order to protect his early plantings from the winter gales, he built a series of walls around the garden. The garden then expanded across the south-facing hillside on a series of terraces carved from the granite subsoil.
Tresco Island

Tresco Priory is a former monastic settlement on Tresco, Isles of Scilly founded in 946 AD. It was re-founded as the Priory of St Nicholas by monks from Tavistock Abbey in 1114. A charter of King Henry I mentions a priory as belonging to Tavistock Abbey in the reign of Edward the Confessor. . . The Priory did not survive the Dissolution of the Monasteries and may well have closed earlier. The remains of the priory are now incorporated into Tresco Abbey Gardens.
Wikipedia.


Scilly. | Tresco Abbey.
c.1910

Google Street View.

Tresco Abbey Gardens are located on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom. The 17 acre gardens were established by the nineteenth-century proprietor of the islands, Augustus Smith, originally as a private garden within the grounds of the home he designed and built. The gardens are designated at Grade I in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.

Augustus Smith chose Tresco as the site of his home because the site was more or less central in relation to the rest of the islands. It is also close to the original abbey ruins, is near a fresh water pool and overlooks the sand dunes and beach at Carn Near. The area at the time was barren land and the original building, designed by Smith and started in 1835, was small in comparison to the current building. He made additions to the house in 1843 and 1861. The Grade II listed house consists of roughly coursed granite with ashlar dressings and a slate roof. Some of the timbers from the 1861 wreck of the Award were used for the panelling and roof of the new dining room, as well as panelling of the rooms Annet, Rosevean and Rosevear. His successor, Thomas Smith-Dorrien-Smith, added the tower in 1891.
Wikipedia.

Country house. Mostly of 1843 and 1861, with tower of 1891, for Augustus Smith and Thomas Algernon Dorrien Smith. Roughly coursed granite with ashlar dressings; slate roofs and granite ashlar stacks. Complex evolved plan: main square block with east tower, to east of west wing and south-west wing. 2 and 3 storeys. North elevation has 3-storey entrance bay between main block and west wing, with monogram AS and date 1843 over chamfered 4-centred arched doorway; this is flanked by a slender 3-storey tower with small windows
Historic England


Mesembryanthemums
Aloes Steps, Tresco
Scilly

c.1910
Publisher: “The ‘Neptune’ Series by C. King, Scilly Isles”

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Bramhope Tunnel, West Yorkshire


Bramhope Tunnel – North Eastern Railway
1910s
Publisher: The Alphalsa Publishing Co., Ltd., 284, Scrutton St, London

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The Bramhope Tunnel is a railway tunnel 2.138 miles (3,745 Yards) long built for the Leeds and Thirsk Railway, the Leeds Northern Railway and the East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway, which together later became the North Eastern Railway. 1845-49 It was constructed on the Harrogate Line, carrying rural and commuter passengers between Horsforth and Weeton in West Yorkshire, England. It is notable for its length, for its crenellated north portal, which is Grade II listed, and for the deaths of 24 men during its construction, commemorated in Otley churchyard with a castellated replica of the north portal.

It was constructed by Thomas Grainger, engineer and James Bray, overseer, who set up two sighting towers and then twenty shafts along the line of the tunnel. Men dug horizontally from these shafts until the diggings joined up in 1848. Thousands of navvies lived locally in bothies with their families, and dug in dangerous and wet conditions to facilitate the grand opening in 1849.
Grace’s Guide to British Industrial History

The foundation stone was laid at Shaft 1 in July 1846, once a shaft was finished teams of miners were lowered down to create header tunnels, smaller 8ft x 8ft tunnels shored up by beams and joined up to make a complete mini version of the tunnel. This ensured the line was true and made communication easier. Behind the miners, labourers laid a line of temporary rails for spoil to be removed. Once the headers were complete the excavation was worked in lengths of 12ft, the excavators would move to the opposing side of the shaft and begin digging there while a team of labourers and bricklayers would take their place and begin building the tunnel walls. On Bramhope tunnel there was a total of 22 teams working at any one time, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
. . .
Each end of the tunnel received very different treatment, the Gothic north portal was given a castellated finish (now grade II listed) containing rooms used by railway staff. The south entrance is very plain by comparison, a sandstone horseshoe-shaped arch below a cornice and a parapet. The tunnel was completed November 27th, 1848 and the first train went through it May 31st, Leeds and Thirsk railway officials pulled by Bray’s locomotive Stephenson.
The Secret Library

Wilson Worsdell’s Class R (LNER D20) was introduced on the North Eastern Railway (NER) in 1899. It proved to be an extremely capable locomotive, but by 1907 there was a need locomotives of greater power to handle the increasing train loads. The NER already had a number of more powerful designs, but these were better suited to more onerous duties. The larger Class S1 (LNER B14) engines were not entirely successful. So Wilson Worsdell’s choice was between building more of his Class V (LNER C6) Atlantics, or designing a larger version of the successful D20. The C6 had not been an unqualified success, so he chose the modify the D20. The new design, NER Class R1 (LNER D21) attempted to combine the wheels and cylinders of the D20 with a larger boiler based on the C6’s boiler. In order to use the larger boiler, the D20 boiler was extended by 2ft at the rear. The boiler pressure was also increased to 225psi, and the grate area was increased from 20 to 27sq.ft. The final locomotive had a high adhesive weight of almost 21 tons, reflecting its intended use on the heaviest expresses, rather than the high speed light trains.

The D21s definitely looked impressive with their large boilers, but they turned out to be not quite as good as either the D20s or the C6s. Hence only one batch was built in 1908-9 at Darlington.
The London & North Eastern Railway Encyclopedia

Cleeve Lock, River Thames, Oxfordshire


Goring
c.1910

Google Street View.

Cleeve Lock is a lock on the River Thames, in Oxfordshire, England. It is located just upstream of Goring and Streatley villages, on the eastern side of the river within the village of Goring. There was formerly a separate Cleeve village, after which the lock is named, but it is now considered to be part of Goring. The first lock was built in 1787 by the Thames Navigation Commissioners. The reach above the lock is the longest, and the reach below it is the shortest, on the non-tidal river. . . . There was a flash lock recorded on the site in the 16th century. The first pound lock was built of oak in 1787 alongside a meadow which was then known as Winch Meadow. It was originally to be called Streatley Lock, but in the event took its name from the village of Cleeve on the opposite side of the river. Until 1869 Cleeve Lock and Goring Lock were usually operated a single keeper. The lock was rebuilt in 1874.
Wikipedia.

Way back in the 16th century a flash lock was documented here at Cleeve, the placename coming from a cliff, or clift – a cutting of a channel by water. This weir was converted into an oak pound lock in 1787 and rebuilt in stone in 1874 and converted to hydraulic operation in 1966/7. The lock had its own lock house by the tail gates but this was demolished and a new house was built in 1958 alongside the centre of the lock chamber.
The River Thames Guide

Shaky Bridge, Llandrindod Wells, Wales


Shaky Bridge, Llandrindod Wells
Postmarked 1908
Publisher:

Google Street View (approximate).

A former river crossing over the Ithon usually known as Shakey Bridge, but [on this picture] captioned Shaky Bridge. This rather unsafe looking structure, made of planks suspended on wires, was built in the 1890s.
People’s Collection Wales

This is a circular walk of 6.5km (5.5 miles) graded as medium. Halfway round is the popular beauty spot at Shaky Bridge – the original wire bridge across the river Ithon was dangerously shaky. There is a picnic site which can be reached from Town by road and is a setting off point to explore Bailey Einon Nature Reserve, the grass covered ruins of Cefnllys Castle andthe 14th cent. Church of St Michael.
Llandrindod Wells

St. Augustines Cross, Ramsgate, England


St. Augustines Cross | Ramsgate
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: E.S.

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The cross was commissioned in 1884 by Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, at the time Minister for Foreign Affairs and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.
He was inspired to erect it after hearing the story of a massive oak tree felled within living memory and known as the Augustine Oak, one of a group of trees fringing a field which he owned.

According to local legend, under this oak in AD 597 the first meeting was held between King Æthelberht and the monk Augustine, newly arrived from Rome. Augustine had recently landed on the Isle of Thanet, having been sent by Pope Gregory to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity and thereby re-establish the faith in a country in which it had faded with the fall of the Roman Empire. Not far to the south-east was the stream in which, the legend tells us, Augustine baptised his first convert and which subsequently became known as St Augustine’s Well. Tradition holds that Æhelberht was converted to Christianity and Augustine baptised him on Whit Sunday in AD 597. On Christmas Day of that year, according to a papal letter of AD 598, more than 10,000 baptisms were carried out.
English Heritage

Lighthouse, Ailsa Craig


Lighthouse, Ailsa Craig, Girvan
Posted 1921-22
Publisher: The Philco Publishing Company, London

Google Street View (approximate)

Ailsa Craig Lighthouse is located on Ailsa Craig, an island in the Firth of Clyde, just offshore from Girvan, South Ayrshire, Scotland. In 1881, petitions were received by the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses from Lloyds and the Scottish Shipmasters Association requesting the erection of two fog signals and a lighthouse on Ailsa Craig. The Board of Trade and Trinity House both agreed to the proposal and work commenced the following year. The light was first exhibited on the night of 15 June 1886, an oil burning light which remained in use until 24 January 1911, when it was converted to incandescent.

Until wireless telephone communications were established on Ailsa Craig in 1935, the lightkeepers and employees of Ailsa Craig Granites Ltd used to depend on pigeons for the conveyance of messages. A pigeon house was established at Girvan Green, where the town council established a parking place for cars and buses in 1935. The pigeons were provided by the Lighthouse Boatman at that time, who received an annual payment of £4.00. When a doctor or supplies were required urgently in stormy weather when it was impossible to have messages taken by carrier pigeon, a system of signals by fire was used. One fire on the castle path showing the Lighthouse to the North indicated “bring doctor for Lighthouse”; two fires on the castle path (one at the same place as the Lighthouse fire, and the other 20-30 yards above it), meant “bring doctor for Quarry Company”; one fire at the north end of the Castle Flat showing the Lighthouse to the South indicated the provisions were required.
Northern Lighthouse Board

Theatre Royal, Nottingham


Theatre Royal, Nottingham
c.1910

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Brimming with history, the Theatre Royal is not only a city centre landmark but also one of the most beautiful Victorian theatres in Britain. Built in 1865 and later transformed in 1897 by renowned architect Frank Matcham, the theatre is considered to be one of the most spectacular surviving examples of Matcham’s work.
Theatre Royal & Royal Concert Hall

While Market Street was emerging from the rubble of Sheep Lane, the Theatre Royal sprang up in just six months using a neoclassical design from a fresh new architect. It was the second English theatre design of upcoming architect Charles J Phipps, who went on to become Britain’s first great theatrical architect with an impressive list of theatres across the country to his name. Phipps’ resplendent design had a classical theme closely modelled on the Salle Favart theatre in Paris, featuring six Corinthian pillars in Ancaster stone soaring over the entranceway, supporting a large attic with ornamental vases. This new, dignified, white building rose from the murky industrial skyline just like a classical temple, exactly as ordered.

Within the temple, the class system of 1860s Victorian England was at work, with five brass handled doors beneath the grand colonnade reflecting the status quo. There were stairs to the upper circle and two doors on the left for the middle classes; another two doors for the wealthy with ‘large dress ready’ marble staircases to the dress circle and private boxes in well-served opulence; the final door leading down to the gentleman’s cloak room. Everyone else, you ask? Nottingham’s working classes entered via doors at the side of the theatre to access the pit (stalls) – standing room only. In all, it had a 2,200 capacity, nearly twice its modern, all-seater capacity. Once inside, a sumptuously painted cylindrical interior featured bright frescoes over crimson velvet seats, and was illuminated by an enormous, 170-jet gas flame chandelier. Along with gas-fired ‘lime light’ stage lights and yet more gas jets on the stage. Fire safety wasn’t what it is today.
LeftLion

Armley Goal, Armley, West Yorkshire


Armley Gaol
Publisher: W. Ritchie & Sons (“Reliable series”), 1902-28

Google Street View.

Construction of Leeds Prison (originally named Leeds Borough Gaol) was completed in 1847. Built from locally quarried stone, the prison originally had four wings radiating from a central point in a Victorian architectural style (known as ‘radial’) typical of the time. Each of these four wings had three landings of cells. Eventually Armley Gaol was renamed along with other prisons to make their locations more obvious to people unfamiliar with these areas.
Wikipedia.

Leeds Borough Gaol was completed in 1847 and originally it housed both male and female prisoners. Lilian Ida Lenton (1891 – 1972) was probably the most well-known female prisoner. She was an English Dancer, Suffragist and winner of a French Red Cross Medal for her service as an Orderly in World War I.
comment Mark’s History: The suffragist and dancer imprisoned in Armley’s jail

Armley prison opened in Leeds in the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1847 and was constructed on the then modern penitentiary principal with four radial wings. It was a grim and forbidding building in line with the Victorian ideas of prison and was responsible for housing prisoners sentenced in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It also took over duty of carrying out West Riding executions from York Castle. Ninety three men and one woman were to suffer the death penalty at Armley between 1864 and 1961. An average of almost exactly one per annum.
Capital Punishment U.K.

The grim and forbidding facade of the notorious Victorian jail has dominated the skyline of the proud town of Armley for over 160-years. Its presence spreads an air of notoriety through a town which across the years has grittily got on with its business and has a proud and fascinating industrial history with its clanking mills and bustling factories.
Yorkshire Magazine: Armley Jail– A history of the town and prison”

Blackpool, England


Central Beach, Blackpool
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View (approximate)

In 1919 Thomas Luke celebrated Blackpool as “one of the wonders of the world”; and fifteen years later J B Priestley proclaimed it “the great roaring spangled beast”. Both were alluding to the scale, colour and brilliant lights of Britain’s most popular resort, which provided visitors with entertainment and accommodation on an industrial scale. The Winter Gardens and The Tower offered holidaymakers opulence for sixpence, relying for their success on the millions of visitors who arrived each year, and Blackpool’s three piers and the rides at the Pleasure Beach were further evidence that the technologies that had transformed industry were providing visitors with new thrilling pleasures.
“Blackpool’s Seaside Heritage”, Allan Brodie & Matthew Whitfield, 2014

By the middle of the 18th century, the practice of sea bathing to cure diseases was becoming fashionable among the wealthier classes, and visitors began making the arduous trek to Blackpool for that purpose. In 1781, Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton built a private road to Blackpool, and a regular stagecoach service from Manchester and Halifax was established. A few amenities, including four hotels, an archery stall and bowling greens, were developed, and the town grew slowly. The 1801 census records the town’s population at 473. . . . >Blackpool rose to prominence as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England. The railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers . . . The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire cotton mill owners of closing the factories for a week every year to service and repair machinery. These became known as wakes weeks. Each town’s mills would close for a different week, allowing Blackpool to manage a steady and reliable stream of visitors over a prolonged period in the summer.
Wikipedia.
Wikipedia.

In those early 1860’s there was little entertainment to enjoy in Blackpool. The original Uncle Tom’s Cabin was offering refreshments, music and dancing. What remained of the first building was demolished in 1907. It had to be knocked down – because the crumbling cliff it perched on was eroding rapidly. The current Uncle Tom’s was built afterwards. In 1863 North Pier was the first of the three to be built – made in cast iron on screwed piles. It’s now a Listed Building. In 1867 the Prince of Wales Arcade opened (now the site of The Blackpool Tower). The following year saw new attractions opened including:
– the Talbot Road Assembly Rooms and Theatre Royal (the former Yates’s Wine Lodge and Addison’s night club)
– South Jetty
Central Pier, only became well used in 1870 when Robert Bickerstaffe introduced open-air dancing for the “working classes”.
Live Blackpool


North Pier, Blackpool
c.1908
Publiser: “J M & Co London Series”

Google Street View.

Residents met in December 1861 to discuss a new pier and work began in June 1862. Designed by Eugenius Birch, it opened on May 21st 1863. A landing/fishing jetty was added in 1866 and extended in 1869, bringing the pier’s length to 1410 feet. The pier was damaged in 1867 by wreckage from Nelson’s former flagship, the ‘Foudroyant’, which had been moored off the pier for an exhibition. In the 1870s, the pier-head was enlarged and the Indian Pavilion and bandstand were built. There were further ship collisions with the pier in 1892 and 1897. The deck was widened in 1896, and shops and an arcade were added to the shoreward end in 1903.
National Piers Society

In 1861 a group of the town most prominent movers and shakers had gathered in the Clifton Arms Hotel to discuss the idea of building a Pier. There the most ‘in vogue’ Victorians could exercise in the pastime of promenading in the open air. It was suggested in response to the new pier which had opened at nearby Southport. . . . Blackpool North Pier was built between 1862 and 1863 by R.Laidlow and Son, to the designs of Eugenius Birch. Eugenius Birch was most acclaimed for his seaside pier constructions. During his life he was responsible for no fewer than 14 of them, including some of the best known ones. They include Brighton West and of course Blackpool North Pier. Most piers of the era were made using cast iron. Birch thought that if wrought iron was to be used it would take a lot of repairing if the pier were to be damaged. North Pier was constructed with cast iron screw piles and columns, in turn supporting iron girders and a wooden deck.
Live Blackpool

North Pier is the most northerly of the three coastal piers in Blackpool, England. Built in the 1860s, it is also the oldest and longest of the three. Although originally intended only as a promenade, competition forced the pier to widen its attractions to include theatres and bars. Unlike Blackpool’s other piers, which attracted the working classes with open air dancing and amusements, North Pier catered for the “better-class” market, with orchestra concerts and respectable comedia.ns
. . .
The pier, which cost £11,740 to build, originally consisted of a promenade 468 yards (428 m) long and 9 yards (8.2 m) wide, extending to 18 yards (16 m) wide at the pier-head. The bulk of the pier was constructed from cast iron, with a wooden deck laid on top. . . . The pier was intended primarily for leisure rather than seafaring; for the price of 2d (worth approximately £4.90 in 2012) the pier provided the opportunity for visitors to walk close to the sea without distractions. This fee was insufficient to deter “trippers'”, which led to Major Preston campaigning for a new pier to cater for the ‘trippers’. In 1866, the government agreed that a second pier could be built, despite objections from the Blackpool Pier Company that it was close to their pier and therefore unnecessary . . . . To differentiate itself from the new pier, North Pier focused on catering for the “better classes”, charging for entry and including attractions such as an orchestra and band concerts, in contrast to the Central Pier (or the “People’s pier”), which regularly had music playing and open-air dancing. The pier owners highlighted the difference, charging at least a shilling for concerts and ensuring that advertisements for comedians focused on their lack of vulgarity.
Wikipedia.

Pier, 1862-3, by Eugenius Birch, contractors R. Laidlaw and Son of Glasgow. Cast iron screw piles and columns supporting iron girders and wooden deck 1,405 feet long, with jetty of 474 feet (added 1867). Pierhead enlarged with wings 1874 (for Indian Pavilion later destroyed by fire) now has modern theatre on north side, and curved glass and iron shelters on south side. Promenade deck lined each side by wooden benches with ornamental open-work backs of cast iron: a continuous band of stars in circles surmounted by semicircular fan-shaped backs in groups of three, the centre one having a grotesque in the middle, and the groups divided by voluted armrests. Two pairs of original kiosk-bays on deck have kiosks built c. 1900: each an elongated hexagon of wood and glass, with 2-tier swept- out lead roof bearing octagonal lantern of blue glass and minaret roof with finial.
Historic England

Houses of Parliament, London


Houses of Parliament, London
c.1900

Street View

Website.

The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England.

Its name, which derives from the neighbouring Westminster Abbey, may refer to either of two structures: the Old Palace, a medieval building-complex destroyed by fire in 1834, or its replacement, the New Palace that stands today. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. Committees appointed by both houses manage the building and report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and to the Lord Speaker.
Wikipedia.

In the middle of the eleventh century, King Edward the Confessor had moved his court to the Palace of Westminster, situated on a central site near the river Thames. In 1265 a parliament was created with two houses: the Lords and the Commons. The House of Lords met at the Palace of Westminster while the House of Commons did not have a permanent location. After King Henry VIII moved his court to Whitehall Palace in 1530, the House of Lords continued to meet in Westminster. In 1547 the House of Commons also moved here, confirming Westminster as the central seat of government, a position it still holds today.

In 1834 a fire destroyed the Palace of Westminster, leaving only the Jewel Tower, the crypt and cloister of St. Stephens and Westminster Hall intact. After the fire, a competition was organized to create a new building for the two houses of parliament. A design by Sir Charles Barry and his assistant Augustus Welby Pugin was chosen from ninety-seven entries. They created a large but balanced complex in neo-Gothic style and incorporated the buildings that survived the fire. The whole complex was finished in 1870, more than thirty years after construction started. It includes the Clock Tower, Victoria Tower, House of Commons, House of Lords, Westminster Hall and the Lobbies.
A View on Cities


London.–House of Commons
1900s
Publisher: “M & Co, Ltd”

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