Brougham Castle, Cumbria


Brougham Castle
c.1910
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

In a picturesque setting beside the crossing of the River Eamont in Cumbria, Brougham Castle was founded in the early 13th century. This great keep largely survives, amid many later buildings – including the unusual double gatehouse and impressive “Tower of League”. Both a formidable barrier against Scots invaders and a prestigious residence, the castle welcomed Edward I in 1300. 
English Heritage

Brougham Castle is a medieval building about 2 miles (3.2 km) south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert I de Vieuxpont in the early 13th century. The site, near the confluence of the rivers, Eamont and Lowther, had been chosen by the Romans for a Roman fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument, along with the fort, as “Brougham Roman fort and Brougham Castle”. In its earliest form, the castle consisted of a stone keep, with an enclosure protected by an earthen bank and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built, Robert de Vieuxpont was one of the only lords in the region who were loyal to King John. The Vieuxponts were a powerful land-owning family in North West England, who also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264, Robert de Vieuxpont’s grandson, also named Robert, was declared a traitor, and his property was confiscated by Henry III. Brougham Castle and the other estates were eventually returned to the Vieuxpont family, and stayed in their possession, until 1269, when the estates passed to the Clifford family through marriage. With the outbreak of the Wars of Scottish Independence, in 1296, Brougham became an important military base for Robert Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. He began refortifying the castle: the wooden outer defences were replaced with stronger, more impressive stone walls, and a large stone gatehouse was added.
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Lady Anne Clifford died at Brougham Castle in 1676 and her grandson, Nicholas Tufton, 3rd Earl of Thanet, inherited the Clifford estates. He died in 1679, and over the next five years possession passed through his three younger brothers. Under the youngest, Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet, Brougham Castle suffered particular neglect. In 1714, he decided that Appleby Castle was a sufficient residence and sold the contents of Brougham Castle for £570. Only the Tower of League was left untouched, but in 1723 its contents were also sold, for £40[41] By the 1750s, the castle’s only practical use was as a ready source of building material for the village of Brougham, which prospered due to investment from the Earl of Thanet. In 1794, a record of the dilapidated state of the castle noted that “much of the interior walls have lately been removed, also, for the purposes of building houses for the adjoining farmhold”.
Wikipedia.


PLan of Brougham (“The Castles of England: their story and structure”. James MacKenzie, 1897 p. 284)

This large strong, and magnificent edifice–now in utter ruin–stands at the confluence of the Lowther with the river Eamont, about 1½ miles from Penrith, having been in its day one of the most important of the Border fortresses. The entrance to it is along a series of arches by the river-side. One part of the ruin consists of three square towers, with the remains of their connecting wall stretching for a considerable distance towards the S.W., and terminating in a tower. In the centre of the main group rises the keep, “a lofty square tower, frowning in Gothic strength and gloomy pomp.” The turrets on its summit have disappeared, together with the parapet and galleries. The lowest storey has a vaulted stone roof with eight arches, supported by one centre shaft. It is of Norman origin, but the date of its building is uncertain. On the S. are traces of the Roman camp which stood here on the road from York to Carlisle.
From “The Castles of England: their story and structure”. James MacKenzie, 1897 p. 283 (available here

King Harry Passage, River Fal, Cornwall


King Harry Passage, River Fal
Postmarked 1948
Publisher: Photochrom Co. Ltd

Google Street View (approximate).

The River Fal flows through Cornwall, England, rising at Pentevale on Goss Moor (between St. Columb and Roche) and reaching the English Channel at Falmouth. On or near the banks of the Fal are the castles of Pendennis and St Mawes as well as Trelissick Garden. The River Fal separates the Roseland peninsula from the rest of Cornwall. Like most of its kind on the south coast of Cornwall and Devon, the Fal estuary is a classic ria, or drowned river valley. The Fal estuary from Tregony to the Truro River was originally called Hafaraell (Cornish: Havarel, meaning fallow place).
. . .
Tributaries of the River Fal include the Truro River, River Kennal, Penryn River and Carnon River. Several tidal creeks discharge into the River Fal including Mylor Creek, Pill Creek, Penpol Creek, the Percuil River and Restronguet Creek. The Fal/Truro waterway is navigable between Falmouth and Truro. The River Fal is crossed by the King Harry Ferry, a vehicular chain ferry that links the villages of Feock and Philleigh approximately equidistant between Truro and Falmouth. The river flows through the Carrick Roads, a large ria that creates a natural harbour.
Wikipedia.

In 1887, Colonel Arthur Tremayne of Carclew, gathered together some friends with the idea of forming a company to run a steam-driven ferry bridge across the Fal River in place of the old barge-like, man-propelled ferry which was then being used. The ferry also carried livestock and while a gentleman’s horse was allowed to travel on board, the farmer’s horse and his livestock had to swim alongside. Farmers worried about missing stock would often position small boats downstream to haul out strays. On April 18, 1888, the King Harry Steam Ferry Company was formed, to acquire the lease and charter for the operation of a steam ferry bridge across the Fal River at King Harry Passage, together with the land and property.
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There remains some dispute over the why the crossing is called King Harry and the two most common suggestions are both related to English kings. The first and least likely is that King Henry the VIII and one of his wives visited the area to inspect the castles that he had commissioned at St Mawes and Falmouth to protect the strategically important Carrick Roads from French and Spanish privateers and invasion. The second and more likely reason is that the in the woods to the North East of the crossing point, the local Lord of the Manor had a small Chapel dedicated to King Henry IV and his wife Queen Anne. The Chapel was known as the Chapel of King Henry and over time the Cornish name of Cybellys (crossing or ferry boat) was supplanted by King Harry Passage and thus King Harry Ferry crossing.
Fal RIver Cornwall

Arundel, West Sussex


The Bridge, Arundel.
c.1910

Google Street View (approximate).

Panorama of town, showing castle

Arundel is a market town and civil parish in a steep vale of the South Downs, West Sussex, England. . . . Arundel town is a major bridging point over the River Arun as it was the lowest road bridge until the opening of the Littlehampton swing bridge in 1908. Arundel Castle was built by the Normans to protect that vulnerable fairly wooded plain to the north of the valley through the South Downs. The town later grew up on the slope below the castle to the south. The river was previously called the Tarrant and was renamed after the town by antiquarians in a back-formation.
Wikipedia.

Though it is very much associated with medieval times as the seat of the Earl of Arundel and the Duke of Norfolk, the town’s boom period did not come until the 18th century. Its position straddling the River Arun meant it was an ideal changeover point for goods heading towards London or down the now-non-existent canal to Portsmouth.
“A postman’s quest to preserve Arundel’s glory days”, The Argus

The Old Fox With Its Teeth Drawn, Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire


The Old Fox
c.1910
“The Popular Series”

Google Maps.

Originally a pub known as The Fox and then The Old Fox, after its license was withdrawn around 1900 it became a temperance house and tea cottage trading under the name of “The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn”. It is now a private house. A public house also known as the “Old Fox” lies about 200 metres to the south west.
Historic England

The following comes from the Town and Country Talk column published in the Watford Observer on March 18, 1949.
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Headed “Painless Extraction”, [the article] reads: “Nearby is another relic of bygone days. An old thatched cottage, standing on the side of a pond, bears the inscription ‘The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn’. Once it bore the title of ‘The Old Fox’ and Mr Isaac Dalby, a 68-year-old smallholder, who lives next door, can well remember the happy days when a threepenny bit passed over the counter produced a pint of beer and ten cigarettes. Rumour has it, however, that some of the customers were not able to avoid the pond when coming out after an evening in the snug atmosphere of the inn, with its timbered roof and strong ale. In any case, the late Lord Knutsford (Mr Arthur Holland-Hibbert as he then was) acquired the property and ‘drew its teeth’ by turning it into a temperance cafe.”

There’s a little more on the place in A Souvenir of Bricket Wood”, an excellent booklet published by the Bricket Wood Society in 1982. In a section on public houses, the booklet states “at the end of the 16th Century there were over 500 officially licensed premises in hertfordshire. There were three types of public house – the inn (providing food, drink and lodging), the tavern (selling wine, sometimes food and lodging) and the alehouse, later beerhouse (selling ale or beer but no food or lodging).” It continues: “In the latter half of the 19th Century, there were seven licensed premises in the Bricket Wood area – The Chequers, The Green Man, The Blackboy, The Fox, The Young Fox, The Fox and Hounds and The Gate, four of which exist today.” Not even four any more, I’m afraid (but I suppose you could technically add Moor Mill to the list nowadays). Anyway, the “Souvenir” continues: “About the turn of the century, The Old Fox had its licence revoked and became known as The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn; it served teas until about 50 years ago 9i.e. the early 1930s).
Watford Observer

In the late 19th Century there were two public houses within the bounds of the Conservation Area – ‘The Fox’ and ‘The Old Fox with His Teeth Drawn’. The former
remains a public house. Names have changed over the years and the progression of ‘fox’ names is slightly confusing…’The Old Fox with His Teeth Drawn’ began life as ‘The Fox’, then became ‘The Old Fox’ until its license was withdrawn in 1893. The current Old Fox P.H. began life as The Fox, but known as The ‘Young’ Fox and the two pubs competed for trade until A. Holland-Hibbert (later Viscount Knutsford), bought The Old Fox in 1893. He was a teetotaler and revoked its license in circa 1917 due to the abuse of drinking by the newly attracted in-comers. It then served teas (and sweets and flowers) as a Temperance House under the new name ‘The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn’. Previously a single storey small scale weatherboarded building, it is now a private house, white rendered with rooms in the roof, and the only thatched property in Bricket Wood. Wrapping around the front of the house is an old pond, discernable in part on the Tithe Map, which is still inhabited by waterfowl.
Conservation Area Character Statement, St Albans City & District Council (PDF)

Cleeve Lock, River Thames, Oxfordshire


Goring
c.1910

Google Street View.

Cleeve Lock is a lock on the River Thames, in Oxfordshire, England. It is located just upstream of Goring and Streatley villages, on the eastern side of the river within the village of Goring. There was formerly a separate Cleeve village, after which the lock is named, but it is now considered to be part of Goring. The first lock was built in 1787 by the Thames Navigation Commissioners. The reach above the lock is the longest, and the reach below it is the shortest, on the non-tidal river. . . . There was a flash lock recorded on the site in the 16th century. The first pound lock was built of oak in 1787 alongside a meadow which was then known as Winch Meadow. It was originally to be called Streatley Lock, but in the event took its name from the village of Cleeve on the opposite side of the river. Until 1869 Cleeve Lock and Goring Lock were usually operated a single keeper. The lock was rebuilt in 1874.
Wikipedia.

Way back in the 16th century a flash lock was documented here at Cleeve, the placename coming from a cliff, or clift – a cutting of a channel by water. This weir was converted into an oak pound lock in 1787 and rebuilt in stone in 1874 and converted to hydraulic operation in 1966/7. The lock had its own lock house by the tail gates but this was demolished and a new house was built in 1958 alongside the centre of the lock chamber.
The River Thames Guide

Shaky Bridge, Llandrindod Wells, Wales


Shaky Bridge, Llandrindod Wells
Postmarked 1908
Publisher:

Google Street View (approximate).

A former river crossing over the Ithon usually known as Shakey Bridge, but [on this picture] captioned Shaky Bridge. This rather unsafe looking structure, made of planks suspended on wires, was built in the 1890s.
People’s Collection Wales

This is a circular walk of 6.5km (5.5 miles) graded as medium. Halfway round is the popular beauty spot at Shaky Bridge – the original wire bridge across the river Ithon was dangerously shaky. There is a picnic site which can be reached from Town by road and is a setting off point to explore Bailey Einon Nature Reserve, the grass covered ruins of Cefnllys Castle andthe 14th cent. Church of St Michael.
Llandrindod Wells

Aberdeen, Scotland


Aberdeen from Craiginches
Postmarked 1904
Publisher: Frederick Hartmann (1902-1909)

Google Street View.

Aberdeen’s Craiginches Prison – where the last man to be hanged for murder in Scotland lies buried – will close its doors for the last time today. The prison, once one of the most overcrowded jails in Scotland, is being closed as part of plans for the new £140 million “super jail” HMP Grampian which will open in March in Peterhead. The last inmates at the Victorian prison, built 124 years ago, left Craiginches yesterday. Over recent weeks an estimated 200 prisoners have been transferred to Perth Prison and Barlinnie Prison in Glasgow.
The Scotsman, 10 January 2014/a>

Bridge of Don, Aberdeen


New Bridge of Don, Aberdeen
Postmarked & dated 1917
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View (approximate).

The Bridge of Don is a five-arch bridge of granite crossing the River Don just above its mouth in Aberdeen, Scotland. In 1605 Alexander Hay executed a Charter of Mortification for the maintenance of the 13th century Brig o’ Balgownie further upstream, which later became the Bridge of Don Fund, which financed several bridges in the north-east of Scotland. This fund having accumulated a value of over GB£20,000, the patrons of the fund, the town council, sought an Act of Parliament to permit construction of a new bridge in 1825. The original design by John Gibb and John Smith was modified by Thomas Telford, and construction work started in 1827. Problems with the foundations meant it had to be partly taken down and have additional piles sunk. It was opened free to the public with no toll in 1830 and later gave its name to the suburb of the city on the north bank.
Wikipedia.

Teith & Ben Ledi, Callander, Scotland


Teith & Ben Ledi, Callander
c.1920
Publisher: Valentine

The River Teith is a river in Scotland, which is formed from the confluence of two smaller rivers, the Garbh Uisge (River Leny) and Eas Gobhain at Callander, Stirlingshire. It flows into the River Forth near Drip north-west of Stirling. . . . The ‘Brig o’ Teith’ was constructed in 1535 by Robert Spittal, a Royal tailor to Mary Queen of Scots. According to Charles Roger in ‘A Week at Bridge of Allan 1851’, a ferryman refused Spittal passage across the Teith as he did not have his purse and could not pay. The bridge was built in retaliation.
Wikipedia.

Google Street View.

Loch and Church, Kilconquhar


Kilconquhar Loch and Church
Postmarked 1907
Publisher: M. Wane & Co, Edinburgh

Google Street View (location)

Today’s Kilconquhar is dominated by the imposing Kilconquhar Parish Church which stands in its raised churchyard at the west end of the village’s main street. This is fitting, because it seems that the name and the origin of Kilconquhar both relate to the church. Placenames beginning “Kil” are usually associated with very early churches, and the name of Kilconquhar probably comes from the Gaelic Cill Conchubair meaning the church of Conquhar or Connacher. The theory is that an early Christian missionary of Irish origin established a chapel here, perhaps in the 600s, which over the centuries developed into the church known to have been bestowed on the convent in North Berwick in 1200.

Although Kilconquhar has effectively been built along the north shore of Kilconquhar Loch, it comes as a surprise to find that the loch is virtually inaccessible, even almost invisible, from the village. The sign outside the Kinneuchar Inn suggests the loch was once used for curling in winter, and these days it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is also an oddly difficult stretch of water to discover much about.

Undiscovered Scotland

This cruciform church was built between 1819 and 1821, adjacent to an earlier church (site 1232). It was designed by Richard Crichton and built by R and R Dickson. The church is situated on high ground in the centre of the village, overlooking Kilconquhar loch to the south. The graveyard, which is still in use, surrounds the church. The oldest stones are found around the old parish church to the east of the present church which it predates, and there are some interesting eighteenth century memorials towards the south east corner.
POWiS (Places of Worship in Scotland)

By 1818 the old Church was in need of repair and enlargement so it was decided to build a new church big enough to accommodate 900. The plan of the church being built at the time at Cockpen in the parish of Dalkeith was adopted and was not to cost more than £2500. The perspective view of the new Church from 1819 prepared by Messrs R & R Dickson, Edinburgh Architects can be seen in the Church’s North Hall. Before the building was completed the plans were enlarged to seat 1035 and the heritors were canny enough to save money by using as much of the old building as possible. They also needed to take down the old church as the space was needed to accommodate the new building. The building is a cruciform design with a clock and bell tower at the west end and was opened on 12th August 1821. It more or less came in on budget at £2761, the additional cost due to the changes to the design. In 1900 the chancel at the east end was added along with the organ, the communion tables and chairs.
East Neuk Trinity