The Tribunal, Glastonbury, Somerset


Glastonbury, The Tribunal
c.1910
Publsher: The Pictorial Stationery Co., London

Google Street View.

The Tribunal in Glastonbury, Somerset, England, was built in the 15th century as a merchant’s house. It has been designated as a Grade I listed building. The history of the building is not well documented, although the majority of the present stone house was constructed in the 15th century on the site of a 12th-century wooden building. The current front wall was added in the 16th century. It has been used as a merchant’s house and possibly a shop and school. It was thought that it was the venue for court proceedings, hence the title Tribunal, however there is no evidence this ever occurred. One of the ground floor rooms still has the window and ceiling panels from the Elizabethan era. The front room upstairs has an arched braced, wooden, truss roof. . . . The house owes its name to the fact that it was formerly mistakenly identified with the Abbey’s tribunals, where secular justice was administered for Glaston Twelve Hides. The name may have been first used by John Collinson in his History and Antiquities of the County of Somerset in 1791, however when investigated by Richard Warner in 1826 he could not identify where the name had originated. It was also thought to be the site of trials by Judge Jeffreys for the Bloody Assizes after the Monmouth Rebellion.

The current building was constructed in the 15th century on the site of a wooden building dating from the 12th century. In the 16th century a new facade was added to the original building. It is possible that the stonework and window of the front wall were removed from the abbot’s lodgings behind the great kitchen of the Abbey as similar features can be identified in a 1712 engraving, and it is known that the building was ruined and without its front wall by 1723. The door is original and above it are a Tudor rose and the arms of Richard Beere who was Abbot of Glastonbury from 1493 to 1524.
Wikipedia.

The well-preserved Glastonbury Tribunal is thought to have been a 15th-century merchant’s house and a residence for one of Glastonbury Abbey’s officials.
The name ‘Tribunal’ comes from the belief that the building once housed the abbey’s tribunals, a courtroom where justice was administered for managing the abbey’s vast estates. More recent historical research suggests that the building was not, in fact, used as a tribunal, but the name is so well-established that it will probably be known as the Glastonbury Tribunal as long as it stands.

The facade facing onto the High Street is typical of late medieval and Tudor houses at ground level. A projecting bay was added at first-floor level in the early years of the 16th century and you can clearly see where the addition joins to the older medieval stonework. Over the doorway are heraldic shields carved with symbols of the Tudor rose and the arms of Abbot Beer, who died in 1524. The ground floor has internal divisions added in the centuries following construction. One ground-floor room retains its fireplace and you can see linenfold panelling below the window opening. You can easily spot places where corbels helped support an upper floor, and where the medieval stairs stood. The rear ground-floor chamber has a panelled ceiling.
Britain Express

The building is a typical late medieval house, with a separate kitchen block at the rear. A passage leads from the front door through to the courtyard at the back. The present façade with its projecting first-floor bay was added in the early 16th century: the construction joints are clearly visible in the masonry. The Tudor rose and the badge of Abbot Beer (died 1524) have been reset over the entrance to the passage. Within the house, several internal partitions were added when the building was let to different tenants later in its history.

The ground-floor front room retains its arched fireplace with recesses on either side, and below the window the wooden panels, carved to imitate linen folds, date from the 16th century. Scars on the wall show the location of the medieval stairs, and corbels or supports mark the position of an upper floor. The room at the back was the main chamber and has a fine panelled ceiling; the four-light window in the north wall is original, while those in the east and west walls were inserted in the 17th century. The kitchen block at the back of the house is a separate building added in Elizabethan times. The first floor, which now houses the Lake Village Museum, repeats the arrangement of the ground floor. The main room at the front extends over the entrance passage and retains its fine original open roof.
English Heritage

Tresco Abbey Gardens, Isles of Scilly


Scilly Isles. Old Abbey Ruins. Dracaena in Bloom.
c.1910
Publisher: Pictorial Stationery Co.

Google Street View.

In 1834, Augustus Smith left Hertfordshire and took up residence on the Isles of Scilly as Lord Proprietor and leaseholder of all the islands, choosing Tresco as his home… He selected a site adjacent to St Nicholas Priory – which had fallen into disrepair in the sixteenth century – to build his home. On a rocky outcrop above these ruins, Augustus Smith built his house, which he named Tresco Abbey. In addition to constructing the house, he started almost immediately creating a garden based around the priory ruins. In order to protect his early plantings from the winter gales, he built a series of walls around the garden. The garden then expanded across the south-facing hillside on a series of terraces carved from the granite subsoil.
Tresco Island

Tresco Priory is a former monastic settlement on Tresco, Isles of Scilly founded in 946 AD. It was re-founded as the Priory of St Nicholas by monks from Tavistock Abbey in 1114. A charter of King Henry I mentions a priory as belonging to Tavistock Abbey in the reign of Edward the Confessor. . . The Priory did not survive the Dissolution of the Monasteries and may well have closed earlier. The remains of the priory are now incorporated into Tresco Abbey Gardens.
Wikipedia.


Scilly. | Tresco Abbey.
c.1910

Google Street View.

Tresco Abbey Gardens are located on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom. The 17 acre gardens were established by the nineteenth-century proprietor of the islands, Augustus Smith, originally as a private garden within the grounds of the home he designed and built. The gardens are designated at Grade I in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.

Augustus Smith chose Tresco as the site of his home because the site was more or less central in relation to the rest of the islands. It is also close to the original abbey ruins, is near a fresh water pool and overlooks the sand dunes and beach at Carn Near. The area at the time was barren land and the original building, designed by Smith and started in 1835, was small in comparison to the current building. He made additions to the house in 1843 and 1861. The Grade II listed house consists of roughly coursed granite with ashlar dressings and a slate roof. Some of the timbers from the 1861 wreck of the Award were used for the panelling and roof of the new dining room, as well as panelling of the rooms Annet, Rosevean and Rosevear. His successor, Thomas Smith-Dorrien-Smith, added the tower in 1891.
Wikipedia.

Country house. Mostly of 1843 and 1861, with tower of 1891, for Augustus Smith and Thomas Algernon Dorrien Smith. Roughly coursed granite with ashlar dressings; slate roofs and granite ashlar stacks. Complex evolved plan: main square block with east tower, to east of west wing and south-west wing. 2 and 3 storeys. North elevation has 3-storey entrance bay between main block and west wing, with monogram AS and date 1843 over chamfered 4-centred arched doorway; this is flanked by a slender 3-storey tower with small windows
Historic England


Mesembryanthemums
Aloes Steps, Tresco
Scilly

c.1910
Publisher: “The ‘Neptune’ Series by C. King, Scilly Isles”

Google Street View.

Old Manor House, Sheffield, South Yorkshire


Sheffield: The Old Manor House.
1910s
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

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Sheffield Manor Lodge, also known as Sheffield Manor or locally as Manor Castle, is a lodge built about 1516 in what then was a large deer park southeast of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, to provide a country retreat and further accommodate George Talbot, the 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, and his large family. . . . The remains of Sheffield Manor Lodge include parts of the kitchens, long gallery, and the Grade II* listed Turret House (also called “Queen Mary’s Tower”), which contains fine sixteenth-century ceilings. Some evidence points to the Turret House being built by 1574, when the Earl of Shrewsbury’s accounts record payments for masonry work on the “Tyrret” at Sheffield Manor. It has three storeys of two rooms. The stair at one corner rises above the building onto the roof. This seems to have been designed as a viewing platform and is comparable with the “Hunting Tower” at Chatsworth House. . . After Sheffield Manor fell into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk, it was neglected, sold to tenant farmers, and largely dismantled in 1706. Some remaining walls and a window were removed to the grounds of Queen’s Tower in Norfolk Park by Robert Marnock in 1839.
Wikipedia.

The early hunting lodge was regularly extended – at least six building phases have been identified prior to the early 16th century. George Talbot, the fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, was the first Lord of the Manor to take an active personal interest in local affairs, and expanded and upgraded the existing lodge considerably, so that by the beginning of the 1500s quite an extensive complex of buildings, a grand Tudor manor house, was in existence. . . . During the 1570s, the sixth Earl and his wife undertook a major programme of remodelling the manor house, adding a new prestigious brick wing and, in 1574, the Turret House – a new gatehouse and the only building that remains today.
Sheffield Manor Lodge

After the death of George Talbot, the Earls rarely visited the site and the land was leased to tenant farmers. It fell to the Duke of Norfolks in 1660 who have owned the land ever since. In 1708 most buildings were demolished and used for local building works. One tower stood until 1793 when it collapsed during a storm. The Turret House remains to this day having been used as part of farm buildings. . . . In the 1870s, the 15th Duke of Norfolk restored the Turret House, removing the surrounding farm buildings. The stained glass windows on the upper floors date from this Victorian restoration.
Sheffield Manor Lodge


Sheffield: Queen’s Room, Old Manor House
1910s
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

Google Street View (approximate).

The principal remains at Sheffield consist of a few walls and chimney stack and the so-called Turret House, the building especially erected by Shrewsbury in 1574 for, it is believed, the safe keeping of the Queen. It was restored by the late Duke of Norfolk in 1872, after it had been discovered among some farm buildings. It is square, three storeyed, and stands outside the defences of the Castle. Tiles of French origin were discovered here round the fireplace of what has long been known as Queen Mary’s Room. This battlemented Tudor building, with a lead-covered roof, has a turret from which it takes its name and three chimney stacks. It faces the main entrance to the Manor Lodge or House. A stone stairway leads from the ground floor to the turret. Mary would be under constant observation in this compact dwelling and also separated from Shrewsbury’s household. During the early part of her stay in Sheffield she was free of the splendid park, but afterwards took her exercise on the leaden roof.
“In The Steps of Mary, Queen Of Scots”, Marjorie Bowen (1952)

Stone Castle, Stone, Kent


Stone Castle
c.1910
“Snowden’s Series”

Google Street View (approximate).

Mediaeval and circa 1825. In the south-east corner of the building is a mediaeval, probably late C12, square tower of 3 storeys faced with knapped flints with some stone quoins. Parapet over it. Two arrow slit windows in the north wall and a circular stair turret. The other windows are modern. To the north-west of this is a house of circa 1825 which was altered by Henry Hakewill (died 1830).
Historic England

Stone Castle is located in the village of Stone, 10 km away from Gravesend. Dating from the mid 11th century, the castle was thought to have been built without licence during the reign of King Stephen, but later allowed to remain by Henry II on his accession to the throne. In 1165 Thomas A Becket stopped at Stone Castle on his way to Canterbury. It is believed that the castle fell into disrepair and was rebuilt in the 13th century. . . . In 1660 the Stone Castle changed owners again when it became the property of Dr Thomas Plume, Arch Deacon of Rochester. The existing house was built onto the old tower in 1825 and further extended 13 years later.
Castles and Palaces of the World

Stokesay Castle, Stokesay, Shropshire


Upper room in priest’s tower, Stokesay Castle
1950s (earlier photo)
Publisher: Walter Scott

Google Street View.

Stokesay is one of the first fortified manor houses in England: almost all the surviving house was completed by 1291. Its walls and moat (the former demolished in the 1640s) outside, and strongrooms within, provided a degree of security, though in reality its military appearance was superficial: it could never have withstood a serious siege, as the expansive windows on both sides of the hall make clear. Meanwhile the symmetry of Stokesay’s layout – with a tower at each end of the residential complex and a regular sequence of gables and windows in the hall between them – bears witness to the taste, wealth and importance of its owner.
English Heritage

Stokesay Castle is a remarkable survival, a fortified manor house which has hardly altered since the late 13th century. The house was built by Lawrence Ludlow, a leading wool merchant of his day, who created a comfortable residence combining an aesthetically pleasing design with some defensive capabilities. In doing so, he took advantage of the newly established peace on the Welsh border following Edward I’s defeat of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Last. This enabled him to build a large hall, comfortable solar, or private apartment, with windows on the outside world, without fear of attack.
Castles of Wales


Plan of Stokesay Castle (from Wikimedia Commons).

The three-storey north tower is reached by a 13th-century staircase in the hall, which leads onto the first floor. The first floor was divided into two separate rooms shortly after the construction of the tower, and contain various decorative tiles, probably from Laurence’s house in Ludlow. The walls of the second floor are mostly half-timbered, jettying out above the stone walls beneath them; the tower has its original 13th-century fireplace, although the wooden roof is 19th-century, modeled on the 13th-century original, and the windows are 17th-century insertions.
Wikipedia.

Dunster Castle, Dunster, Somerset


Dunster Castle
1940s
Publishers: Dearden & Wade, Bournemouth

Google Street View (approximate).

Dunster Castle is a former motte and bailey castle, now a country house, in the village of Dunster, Somerset, England. The castle lies on the top of a steep hill called the Tor, and has been fortified since the late Anglo-Saxon period. After the Norman conquest of England in the 11th century, William de Mohun constructed a timber castle on the site as part of the pacification of Somerset. A stone shell keep was built on the motte by the start of the 12th century, and the castle survived a siege during the early years of the Anarchy. At the end of the 14th century the de Mohuns sold the castle to the Luttrell family, who continued to occupy the property until the late 20th century.

The castle was expanded several times by the Luttrell family during the 17th and 18th centuries; they built a large manor house within the Lower Ward of the castle in 1617, and this was extensively modernised, first during the 1680s and then during the 1760s. The medieval castle walls were mostly destroyed following the siege of Dunster Castle at the end of the English Civil War, when Parliament ordered the defences to be slighted to prevent their further use. In the 1860s and 1870s, the architect Anthony Salvin was employed to remodel the castle to fit Victorian tastes; this work extensively changed the appearance of Dunster to make it appear more Gothic and Picturesque.
Wikipedia.

Abottsford, Melrose, Roxburghshire


The Library, Abbotsford
c.1920
Publisher: W. Ritchie & Sons (“Reliable series”), 1902-28

Google Maps

Abbotsford is a historic country house in the Scottish Borders, near Galashiels, on the south bank of the River Tweed. Now open to the public, it was built as the residence of historical novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott between 1817 and 1825. . . . The estate and its neo-Medieval features nod towards Scott’s desire for a historical feel, but the writer ensured that the house would provide all the comforts of modern living. As a result, Scott used the space as a proving-ground for new technologies. The house was outfitted with early gas lighting and pneumatic bells connecting residents with servants elsewhere in the house.
Wikipedia.

The library at Abbotsford is entirely the creation of Scott: it begins with the chapbooks he collected as a child and continues through the small volumes of poetry he annotated as a schoolboy.
Abbotsford: the home of Sir Walter Scott

From this you pass into the largest of all the apartments, the library, which I really must say, is really a noble room. It is an oblong of some fifty feet, by thirty, with a projection in the centre, opposite the fireplace, terminating in a grand bow window, fitted up with books also, and, in fact, constituting a sort of chapel to the church. The roof is of carved oak again a very rich pattern I believe chiefly a la Roslin; and the bookcases, which are also of richly carved oak, reach high up the walls all round. The collection amounts, in this room, to some fifteen or twenty thousand volumes, arranged according to their subjects : British history and antiquities, filling the whole of the chief wall ; English poetry and drama, classics and miscellanies, one end : foreign literature, chiefly French and German, the other. The cases on the side opposite the fire are wired and locked, as containing articles very precious and very portable. One consists entirely of Books and MSS. relating to the insurrections of 1715 and 1745; another (within the recess of the bow window), of treatises de re magice, both of these being (I am told, and can well believe) in their several ways, collections of the rarest curiosity. My cicerone pointed out, in one corner, a magnificent set of Mountfaucon, ten volumes folio, bound in the richest manner in scarlet, and stamped with the royal arms, the gift of his present Majesty.

There are few living authors of whose works presentation copies are not to be found here. My friend showed me inscriptions of that sort in, I believe, every European dialect extant. The books are all in prime condition, and bindings that would satisfy Mr. Dibdin. The only picture is Sir Walter’s eldest son, in hussar uniform, and holding his horse, by Allan of Edinburgh, a noble portrait, over the fireplace ; and the only bust is that of Shakespeare, from the Avon monument, in a small niche, in the centre of the east side. On a rich stand of porphyry, in one corner, reposes a tall silver urn, filled with bones from the Piraeus, and bearing the inscription, “Given by George Gordon, Lord Byron, to Sir Walter Scott, Bart.” It contained the letter which accompanied the gift, till lately — it has disappeared, no one guesses who look it ; but, whoever he was, as my guide observed, he must have been a thief for thieving’s sake truly, as he durst no more exhibit his autograph, than tip himself a bare bodkin ! Sad, infamous tourist, indeed ! Although I saw abundance of comfortable looking desks and arm chairs, yet this room seemed rather too large and fine for work and I found accordingly, after passing a double pair of doors, that there was a sanctum within and beyond this library. And here you may believe, was not to me the least interesting, though by no means the most splendid, part of the suit.
Sydney Gazette, 16 May 1829


The Study, Abbotsford

The Study was designed as Scott’s private sanctum and was the last room to be completed at Abbotsford in 1824.
Abbotsford: the home of Sir Walter Scott

ABBOTSFORD
AND SIR WALTER SCOTT’S STUDY.

The lion’s own den proper, then, is a room of about five-and-twenty feet square by twenty feet high, containing of what is called furniture nothing but a small writing-table in the centre, a plain arm chair covered with black leather–a very comfortable one though, for I tried it.–and a single chair besides, plain symptoms that this is no place for company. On either side of the fire-place their are shelves filled with duodecimos and books of reference, chiefly, of course, folios ; but except these there are no books save the contents of a light gallery which runs round three sides of the room, and is reached by a hanging stair of carved oak in one corner. You have been both at the Elisée Bourbon and Mulmaison, and remember the library at one or other of those places, I forget which ; this gallery is much in the same style. There are only two portraits, an original of the beautiful and melancholy head of Claverhouse, and a small full length of Rob Roy. Various little antique cabinets stand round about, each having a bust on it : Stothard’s Canterbury Pilgrims are on the mantlepiece; and in one corner, I saw a collection of really useful weapons, those of the forest craft, to wit–axes and bills and so forth of every calibre. There is only one window pierced in a very thick wall, so that the place is rather sombre ; the light tracery work of the gallery over-head, harmonizes with the books well. It is a very comfortable looking room, and very unlike any other I was in. I should not forget some Highland clamorers, cluttered round a target over the Canterbury people, nor a writing-box of carved wood, lined with crimson velvet, and furnished with silver plate of right venerable aspect, which looked as if it might be the implement of old Chaucer himself, but which from the arms on the lid must have belonged to some Indian Prince of the day of Leo the magnificent at the furthest.
Sydney Gazette, 16 May 1829


Ground Plan of House (from Wikimedia Commons.)

Keigwin Arms, Mousehole, Cornwall


Mousehole, Keigwin Arms
c.1910 (the photo is 1893)
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co

The Keigwin Arms was situated at 5-7 Keigwin Place. Featured in the TV series Poldark, this is the oldest house in Mousehole being built by most accounts in the 14th century and then having cost the life of Squire Jenkyn Keigwin in 1595 whilst defending it against the Spaniards. The cannon ball that killed him was found in the house and is in the Penzance museum along with his sword.
The Lost Pubs Project

Keigwin and Little Keigwin were both originally part of a 16th century Manor House. Keigwin has an interesting gabled wing which projects out and is supported on pillars. Mousehole was destroyed in 1595 during a raid on Mount’s Bay by Spaniard Carlos de Amésquita. This building is the only building that survives from before this date. It has a plaque with the wording “Squire Jenkyn Keigwin was killed here 23rd July 1595 defending this house against the Spaniards”. Amésquita was a naval office who raided Cornwall with four Spanish galleys during the Anglo-Spanish War. He also bombarded Penzance sinking ships in the harbour during what is known as the Battle of Cornwall. He eventually went back to Brittany, managing to avoid the counterattack by the English fleet, commanded by Francis Drake and John Hawkins.
Historic England

Lygon Arms Hotel, Broadway, Worcestershire


On back:
The Georgian drawing room, Lygon Arms, Broadway
1910s
Publisher: Sydney Bolton Russeull, Broadway

Google Street View (exterior).

In the early 1900s, [entrepreneur, Sydney Bolton Russell] was a manager for the Midlands brewer Samuel Allsopp and Sons and travelled the country inspecting its public houses. On one of his trips, he came upon the Lygon Arms in Broadway. Although the village was liberally endowed with inns, many of them interesting historic buildings, he shrewdly recognised that the Lygon Arms stood apart due to its impressive size and imposing 16th-century frontage with four towering gables. This, he realised, had the potential to be more than just an inn relying on bar trade from locals. Ambitious and confident of his abilities and business acumen, Russell obtained financial backing, bought the building from the Allsopps and, in 1903, found himself owner of the property. Adopting the Cotswold country house of the Tudor and Stuart period as his model, he transformed the inn into a hotel of international repute. He recounted his happy and eventful experiences in his book The Story of an Old English Hostelry (1914)
Country Life

Owners have changed, names have altered, but visitors have always flocked to The Lygon Arms, a charming hotel enshrouded in history. The hotel’s name has changed throughout history, and the first written record refers to it as The White Hart, in 1377. The hart, a mature stag, was a personal symbol of King Richard II (1367 – 1400). The hotel’s name would change several times, reflecting the political changes of each era, showing how much history would shape the enchanting hotel. The coaching inn would come into its own when it would serve as a touch-stone for both sides of the English Civil War in 1649. The English Civil War pit Queen Elizabeth’s cousin Charles I against the forces of the English Parliament, and some of that played out within the very walls of The Lygon Arms itself.
The Lygon Arms


On back:
A recently restored room, Lygon Arms, Broadway, having original fireplace, oak floor and mullions, onwhich dates from 1586 to 1640 are carved.
1910s

Publisher: Sydney Bolton Russeull, Broadway

West Tarring, England


Tarring – The Old Houses
1900s
Publisher: John Davis, 24 Victoria Street

Google Street View.

West Tarring village lay in the south part of the parish. There seems no reason to believe that the early medieval village centre was not on the present site, as has been suggested, even though the church lies away from it. The village consists of three streets, called North, South, and West streets in the 17th and 18th centuries and High Street, South Street, and Church Road in 1978; the junction between them was presumably the site of the marketplace recorded from 1499. The buildings are chiefly of brick, flint, and cobbles, some being painted or rendered or hung with tiles; roofs are of tiles, slates, or Horsham stone slabs. Many buildings are of the 18th century or earlier, especially in High Street which is flanked almost entirely by old houses. The lack of gaps between the buildings and the absence of front gardens, both there and in the adjacent part of Church Road, give the village a quasi-urban character. Many of the older buildings were still used as dwellings in 1978.

There are two medieval buildings in the village besides the church. The Old Palace is described below. At the south end of High Street nos. 4–10, part of what was called Parsonage Row in 1615, comprise a small late-medieval timber-framed house with a central two-bay hall and cross-wings with elaborately carved gables giving a faôade of modified ‘Wealden’ type. The hall and north cross-wing have exposed timber-framing and the hall has a two-storey oriel window; the south cross-wing is cased with brick and hung tiles. An upper floor was later inserted in the hall, probably in the 17th century, and an extension at the rear of the building is probably of the same date. (fn. 13) The building formerly belonged to Tarring rectory manor, and it is possible that it was the original rectory house.
“A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 1, Bramber Rape (Southern Part)”, 1980

The Parsonage – a journey back in timeThe Parsonage began its journey back in 1987, but Parsons Row and Tarring Village have a long and illustrious history dating back to 1066!Tarring was given by King Athelstan of England to the archbishops of Canterbury in the 10th century. At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, the village was known as Terringes, and consisted of 50 households. It is thought that the place name means “Teorra’s people”, with Teorra being a Saxon settler. There is a tradition that the village was visited by Thomas Becket, the martyred archbishop, in the 12th century and also by St Richard of Chichester, patron saint of Sussex, in the 13th century. West Tarring is noted for its 13th-century parish church of St Andrew, 13th-century Archbishop’s Palace, numerous old houses including the 15th-century, now Grade II listed, timber-framed Parsonage Row. The present day Parsonage, now the oldest restaurant in Worthing was formerly home for the Sussex Archaeological Museum in the mid 80’s. Since 1987 the Parsonage has adapted and grown with the changing preferences of its customers and visitors.
The Parsonage