Racecource, Doncaster, South Yorkshire

St. Leger Week, Doncaster
c. 1910
Publisher: Shurey’s Publications (1903-1927)

This seems to be people arriving at the racecourse. (Horse Shoe Pond on the right.)

Google Maps (racecourse location)

The St Leger Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Doncaster over a distance of 1 mile, 6 furlongs and 115 yards (2,921 metres), and it is scheduled to take place each year in September. Established in 1776, the St Leger is the oldest of Britain’s five Classics. It is the last of the five to be run each year, and its distance is longer than any of the other four. Doncaster is one of the oldest established centres for horse racing in Britain, with records of regular race meetings going back to the 16th century. In 1600 the corporation tried to put an end to the races because of the number of ruffians they attracted, but by 1614 it acknowledged failure and instead marked out a racecourse.
Doncaster Racecourse

The Town Moor at Doncaster served as a race course since the late sixteenth century. By the mid-eighteenth centuy racing was firmly established on the site, supported by the Doncaster Corporation, which offered plates and money as prizes to encourage it. The Doncaster Gold Cup is the oldest still-recognizable race held there, first run in 1766; the St. Leger, which began as a sweepstakes on a course nearby, was moved to the site in 1778. The course is about a mile and seven and one-half furlongs in circumference, and is mostly level, with the exception of a low hill a mile and one-half from the winning post.
Thoroughbred Heritage

Royal Box, Grandstand, Goodwood, West Sussex

Goodwood, Grand Stand, Royal Box
Publisher: Francis Frith

Google Street View (approximate).

A new stand was built in 1903 with a Royal pavilion attached at the paddock end for the King. At the other end, Queen Alexandra had a box with a private underground passage connecting the two. No expense was spared for either box: the King’s lavatory was made of monogrammed marble.

In 1976, however, the parade ring was moved to the south side of the racecourse behind the March Stand. At the same time, the weighing room, which had previously been in the old Charlton building, was relocated to the north side of the parade ring. This involved moving the old road south of the racecourse. The old Stand was demolished after the Festival meeting of 1979 and replaced by the present March Stand, designed by the architect Sir Philip Dowson, which won the annual Concrete Society Award.
Goodwood via Wayback Machine

Taunton Castle, Taunton, Somerset

Taunton Castle
Postmarked 1905
Publisher: ETW Dennis & Sons

Google Street View.

Taunton Castle was at the heart of a great Somerset estate owned by the bishops of Winchester. Lands belonging to the bishops were scattered over seven English counties, and reached to the banks of the Thames at Southwark. But Taunton was their largest estate, occupying thousands of acres in the Vale of Taunton Deane. A residence for the bishops and a minster church evidently existed at Taunton during the Anglo-Saxon period. But it was in the 12th century that the present Castle began to take shape. It was most of all an administrative centre and a status symbol, which welcomed royal guests including King John and his son Henry III. Occasionally it was also tested in warfare. In 1451 the Earl of Devon, a Yorkist, was besieged at Taunton by the Lancastrian Lord Bonville. And it was at Taunton Castle in 1497 that Perkin Warbeck, the failed pretender to the throne of Henry VII, was brought before the Tudor king as his prisoner.
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The Great Hall continued to be used as a law court until 1858, as well as for public meetings. In 1831 a speech given there by the wit and orator Sydney Smith turned the tide of national opinion in favour of Parliamentary reform. But the Castle began falling into decay and was only rescued when in 1874 it was purchased by Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society.
The Museum of Somerset

…here, upon the edge of one of the inosculating branches of the sluggish stream, Ine founded his castle by throwing up banks of earth girdled with deep and formidable ditches, and no doubt further strengthened by stockades of timber, or at best by walls the workmanship of which scarcely deserved the name of masonry. Such as it was it was destroyed, that is, burned, by Queen Æthelburh in 722, who probably however left the earthworks, the better part of the defence, much as she found them. . . . Within this area, occupying its north-east corner and about a quarter of its extent, is the inner court or citadel of the place, roughly rectangular, and measuring about 123 yards east and west, by 73 yards north and south. Its east and north faces rest upon the main ditch and the river, and its south and west faces are covered by a curved ditch, artificial, which gives the eastern outer ditch a second connexion with the river, and divides the outer, called “Castle Green,” from the inner court. The position was a very strong one, having the river, and beyond it a morass, towards the north, or threatened side, and to the south a ditch, in part double, and always filled with water.
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What occurred here, and by whom occupied, or what changes took place between the reign of Ine and the end of the eleventh century is not known, but the Normans, accustomed, as far as practicable, to occupy the Saxon seats, soon perceived the advantages held out by the position and earthworks at Taunton, and William Gifford, who held the lordship as Bishop of Winchester in the reign of Henry I., seems to have decided upon building a regular castle. His successors, bishops of Winchester, were much here, and the castle received much addition at their hands, especially in the early Decorated period, of all of which traces more or less considerable still remain.
“Mediæval Military Architecture in England, Vol. II”, George Thomas Clark, 1884

The earliest archaeological features identified at the site include a large number of human burials; the majority were recovered from the area which subsequently became the castle’s outer ward, though several burials were situated within the inner ward. These burials provide evidence for an extensive late-Saxon cemetery associated probably with the minister church that was established in the late 7th century and is referred to in historical records. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the cemetery was active from the late 7th century up to the C11.
Historic England

Plan of Taunton Castle “The castles of England, their story and structure, Vol. II”, James D. Mackenzie, 1897, p. 71

The entire enclosure, surrounded by river, stream, and moat, contains about seven acres, the inner bailey or citadel occupying its N.E. corner. Nothing remains of the outer walls of the lower bailey except a considerable part of the E. gatehouse, defending the entrance on that side to a road which passed through to the W. side, where the gatehouse has disappeared ; there were drawbridges at each of these entrances over the moat and stream, and on the other side of these were wooden barbicans, some timbers of which have been dug up. None of the buildings exist now of the lower ward,— Bishop Fox’s school being, of course, early sixteenth-century work. A good deal of the Norman building of the inner ward remains ; on the W. side is a portion of the rectangular keep, forming part of the wall along the inner moat, and measuring about 50 feet by 40, with walls 13 feet thick. The stone vaulting of its basement remains, and there was a staircase in the N.E. corner, from which extends the outer wall, forming, as at Leicester, the wall of the great hall.
“The castles of England, their story and structure, Vol. II”, James D. Mackenzie, 1897, p. 72

Taunton Castle was extensively modified during the Tudor era when its defensive arrangements were downgraded in order to convert it into a more comfortable residence. Large windows were installed in the Inner Ward Gatehouse and Great Hall. A Grammar School was also built within the castle’s walls in 1520 by Richard Foxe, Bishop of Winchester. The nearby Priory was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1539 but the castle remained property of the church until 1551 when it was transferred into Royal ownership. It was recovered by the Bishops of Winchester in 1577.

During the Civil War Taunton was staunchly pro-Parliament but the wider area was in the Royalist sphere of influence. The populace hastily re-fortified the castle but, in June 1643, both it and the town were taken over by the King’s forces. They held it until 5 June 1644 when Taunton was taken by a Parliamentary force under Colonel Robert Blake. He fortified the town with extensive earthworks and by August 1644 he was besieged by Royalist forces under Sir Edmund Wyndham. They attempted to storm the town and succeeded in forcing Blake’s men to retreat into the castle but the arrival of a Parliamentary army under the command of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex led to the Royalists withdrawing. The respite was short-lived however as Essex was defeated at the Battle of Lostwithiel (1644) giving the King complete dominance in the area. By September 1644 Taunton was besieged again this time by George, Lord Goring. Various relief efforts enabled Taunton to keep on resisting and neither the castle nor town fell. On 11 May 1645 the siege was lifted and, with the Royalist defeat at the Battle of Naseby in June 1645, meant the threat to the town substantially reduced although one final (and unsuccessful) attempt to take the town was made in June 1645.

The Civil War left deep anti-Royalist feelings amongst Taunton’s residents who opposed the Restoration of Charles II and initially refused to hand over the castle. This resistance prompted the new King to order the demolition of the castle in 1662. The Keep bore the brunt of this and was reduced in height to its foundations.
Castles Forts Battles

St. Briavels Castle, St. Briavels, Gloucestershire

St. Briavels Castle, Main Entrance
Publisher: Francis Frith

Google Street View.

Built in the early 12th century, it was the residence of the warden of the Forest of Dean – a royal hunting ground where the game was protected and the king alone allowed to hunt. The castle was in royal possession by the 1160s and was rebuilt, with the small but impressive keep, by Henry II (r.1154–89). The Forest of Dean was important for another reason – it was one of the centres of the medieval iron industry, small scale by present day standards but a vital source of supply for the manufacture of weapons, especially crossbow bolts. The crossbow was the favourite weapon of the mercenaries who were employed in considerable numbers by Henry’s son, King John (r.1199–1216), who built a new hall (now vanished) and an elaborate chamber block at St Briavel’s. . . . Under Edward I (r.1272–1307), thousands of crossbow bolts were produced at the castle in preparation for the king’s Welsh and Scottish campaigns. Edward took care to ensure that his arsenal was well protected, adding the massive twin-towered gatehouse to the castle in 1292.

With the conquest of Wales completed by the end of the 15th century, the castle’s importance declined rapidly and unused buildings were demolished in 1680. The gatehouse became a prison where those accused of committing offences within the forest area were held while awaiting trial. . . . The keep collapsed in 1752, by which time the great hall had also been demolished, and the east tower collapsed in 1777 destroying the adjoining buildings. The castle was still being used as a debtors’ prison until 1842. After centuries of neglect and decay, the surviving buildings were restored and rendered habitable at the turn of the 20th century.
English Heritage

St Briavel’s Castle survives well with its moat, curtain wall, gatehouse and royal apartments in good condition. The upstanding remains are a good example of an enclosure castle of the 13th century. Sub-surface deposits within the castle and moat will contain archaeological information and environmental evidence relating to the castle and the wider landscape. Notice boards explain concisely the history and functions of the various parts of the castle, and it can be visited by the public in its present function as a Youth Hostel, providing a valuable educational resource. The enclosure castle of St Briavels is recorded in the early 12th century, but is thought to have its beginnings in the 11th century as a motte and bailey castle. This long history of use and adaptation will provide evidence of changing approaches to defensive problems and castle building over time. It was one of a sequence of castles along the border, built as part of a defensive strategy against the Welsh. In the 13th century it was strengthened in a huge castle building programme undertaken for the conquest of Wales and the Welsh wars of 1277, 1282-3 and 1294-5. The gatehouse can be seen as part of the sequential development of castle gatehouses formed by projecting mural towers on either side of an entrance passageway which culminated in the grand castles of Harlech, Beaumaris, Caerphilly and Tonbridge.
Historic England

Fast forward a couple centuries to when King John would visit and hunt in the forest every November, always lodging at St Briavels Castle. He allegedly expanded and renovated the former fortress—funded by the taxes he increased and collected, as is expected of this notoriously villainous monarch. Some of the surviving rooms, hall range, and curtain wall are thought to have been built by him. Some time after John’s death, the castle was turned into a quarrel (crossbow bolt) factory, and soon it became the national center of quarrel manufacture, the resources provided by the iron mines in the Forest of Dean. The castle’s most iconic feature, its magnificent gatehouse, was built around this time by the order of King Edward I.
Atlas Obscura

Court Room in St. Briavel’s Castle & Interior of the Debtors’ Prison in St. Briavel’s Castle
“The Forest of Dean”, H. G. Nicholls, 1858, pp. 114-115

The outer walls and the moat are perfect ; the circumference of the castle, of horseshoe shape, is small, and the exterior of the outer wall does not seem to have ever had bastions, such as most castles of the fourteenth century possess, but to have had the whole area within crammed with buildings. The principal strength was in the gatehouse, as at Abergavenny ; it had two powerful square flanking towers, having rounded outer angles, three storeys each in height, and with a large oblong tower behind them, wherein the defence was concentrated and the numbers of the defenders were economised. One of the most remarkable features about the castle is a large room, somewhat resembling our old House of Lords at Westminster ; but before this part of the castle could be entered there were the two flanking towers to be carried, as well as the large one beyond, built on to them, now dilapidated ; and then there was, besides, the Keep, which fell down into the moat, late in the last century, and which had its own postern.

There are curious and intricate passages and staircases contrived in the walls of the entrance towers. The great Hall has, unfortunately, been destroyed, but the solar, or lord’s chamber, at the upper end, remains, and was some time ago used as a school- room ; it contains a fine fireplace, above which is the well-known chimney, with one of the most beautiful chimney-tops in England. At the lower end of the hall some servants’ apartments have been left, connected with one of the gatehouse towers, which is nearly perfect, and contains some small chambers of this period, each having its own fireplace and chimney.
“The castles of England, their story and structure, vol I”, James Mackenzie, 1897 pp. 376

Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire

Courtyard, Warwick Castle
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from a wooden fort, originally built by William the Conqueror during 1068. Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England, situated on a meander of the River Avon. The original wooden motte-and-bailey castle was rebuilt in stone during the 12th century. During the Hundred Years War, the facade opposite the town was refortified, resulting in one of the most recognisable examples of 14th-century military architecture. It was used as a stronghold until the early 17th century, when it was granted to Sir Fulke Greville by James I in 1604. Greville converted it to a country house.
. . .
Caesar’s and Guy’s Towers are residential and may have been inspired by French models (for example Bricquebec). Both towers are machicolated and Caesar’s Tower features a unique double parapet. The two towers are also vaulted in stone on every storey. Caesar’s Tower contained a grim basement dungeon; according to local legend dating back to at least 1644 it is also known as Poitiers Tower, either because prisoners from the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 may have been imprisoned there, or because the ransoms raised from the battle helped to pay for its construction. The gatehouse features murder holes, two drawbridges, a gate, and portcullises – gates made from wood or metal. The towers of the gatehouse were machicolated.

Situated at a crossing point over the River Avon on the Fosse Way, an old Roman Road that was still in use in medieval times, there has been a fortification at Warwick for two thousand years. After the departure of the Romans, the Anglo Saxons established a fortified burh here which was extensive enough to withstanding assaults by the Danes. Around 1068, following the Norman conquest, a timber motte and bailey castle was built here by Henry de Beaumont who had been created Earl of Warwick. Rebuilt in stone in the latter half of the twelfth century, it was nevertheless poorly prepared for conflict when it saw action during the second Baron’s War (1264-7). Rebels from nearby Kenilworth Castle loyal to Simon de Montfort mounted a surprise attack on Warwick Castle and took the then Earl, William Maudit, captive.
Castles Forts Battles

“The castles of England, their story and structure”, James Mackenzie, 1897 pp. 362

Warwick is an excellent example, in remarkably perfect preservation, of the transition period, when the dreary prison-like stronghold, with it scanty accommodation clustered within the walls of the bailey, if not contained within the defensible building itself, was giving place to a more domestic type, demanded by a higher state of civilisation and refinement. Externally as strong as ever, with embattled and machicolated walls and strong flanking towers wherever necessary, the element of domestic comfort was being introduced, and magnificent suites of apartments and offices were now constructed under the main roof, “gradually preparing, as it were, for the time when the wall of enceinte would be dismissed altogether.” Berkeley Castle is another fine example of the same period almost equally perfect.

Warwick was built partly at the end of the fourteenth cent was not finished until the fifteenth ; and it is impossible to trace any part of the castle as erected by Turkill for William the Conqueror, which, again, may have stood on the site of still earlier buildings. It seems to have stood nearly 200 years, hut in the time of Henry III. (1256) it was besieged and taken, and a great part of it destroyed. In this state it lay until the time of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who died in 1369, and who rebuilt it. To this period therefore, must be referred the Hall and the whole of the earlier portions of the domestic buildings. He also built the magnificent tower known as Caesar’s Tower, and probably the gateway.

His son Thomas continued the building, and erected the multangular tower (N.E.), known as Guy’s Tower, which he completed in 1394, the 17 Richard II. In the reign of Edward IV., George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, resided here, and employed himself in making additions to the castle. It is probable that he erected the entrance gateway on the N. side, the loopholes of which appear to be intended for artillery. He had other works in hand, when his career was cut short by his brother in 1478.

From that time little care seems to have been taken with the building, until James I. granted it to Sir Fulke Greville, who found it in a ruinous condition, the principal part of it being used as a county gaol. He expended a large sum in repairs, and in adding to both the E. and W. ends of the main building. Since then various alterations and additions have been made, such as the erection of a dining-room in front of the hall, and of some offices outside the barbican. In 1871 there was a serious fire, which burnt part of the private apartments of the castle, when a number of the curiosities and works of art were destroyed.
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The domestic buildings are on two main floors ; the basement, containing the kitchens and cellars, bakehouse, &c., the whole being vaulted and groined ; and the principal floor having the great hall, with the modern dining-room in front of it, communicating on the E. and W. with the State apartments and bedrooms ; and the chapel on the N.W. of the hall.
“The castles of England, their story and structure, vol I”, James Mackenzie, 1897 pp. 363-5

Bramber Castle, Bramber, West Sussex

Bramber Castle.
Publisher: Valentine & Sons

Google Street View.

English Heritage: plan of castle

Bramber Castle is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle formerly the caput of the large feudal barony of Bramber long held by the Braose family. It is situated in the village of Bramber, West Sussex, near the town of Steyning, overlooking the River Adur. Surveys indicate the Normans were the first to build a fortification in the area, around 1070. It served as the administrative hub of the newly created Rape of Bramber, and controlled the River Adur estuary. The castle was held by William de Braose, 1st Lord of Bramber, whose family originated from Falaise. Except for a short period when it was confiscated by King John (1199–1216), the castle remained in the de Braose family, until the male line died out in 1326, and it passed to the Mowbrays. Bramber was one of the poorest parts of Sussex , and while it remained a centre of administration, the Mowbrays did not live there; by the 1550s, it was recorded as ‘the late castle’, used for grazing. During the First English Civil War, Bramber was held by a Parliamentary garrison, under James Temple. In December 1643, a skirmish took place nearby, when a Royalist force unsuccessfully tried to secure the bridge over the River Adur. However, it is unclear whether the castle itself was occupied

The original construction of the castle was centred on a high knoll, on which was built a motte 9 metres (30 feet) high using material quarried from an encircling ditch. The motte is visible as a tree-covered mound in the centre of the site. It was surrounded by a wide bailey, or enclosure, entered on the south side through a stone gatehouse (close to the present entrance to the site). The motte, which probably held a wooden structure, was soon abandoned in favour of a three-storey stone keep and the ditch around the motte was filled in. Only one wall of the keep still stands to a height of 14 metres. The floor levels within the keep are indicated by joist slots in the masonry.

Excavation in 1966 and 1967 revealed that the area north of the gatehouse was built up with clay and chalk and that a series of buildings was erected in this area. A kitchen lay to the west. The area was used as a rubbish dump in the 14th century, when the buildings east of the motte may have become the main accommodation. The lower courses of these structures can still be seen. An outer ditch was dug around the knoll and an outer bank created to strengthen the defences, probably at the same time as the keep was built. The wall around the top of the knoll was renewed in stone, and parts of this impressive construction still stand to a height of 3 metres (10 feet).
English Heritage

Although now far inland, Bramber Castle was originally situated on the coast where the River Adur meets the sea. Built by the de Braose family it was confiscated by King John whose harsh treatment of Lady de Braose and her two sons led to the rebellion that culminated in Magna Carta. . . . By the sixteenth century Bramber Castle was ruinous and had suffered badly from subsidence. With stone being removed for road and house building this mighty Norman fortification all but disappeared. The site was briefly re-fortified during World War II with two pillboxes being installed.
Castles Forts Battles

Ruins of Bramber Castle, 17th century, (from Wikimedia Commons)

There is but little left of the Norman structure which, by the disposition of the frajiments remaining of its outer wall on the W. side, seems to have been adapted to the circumvallation of an ancient earthwork, whose mound, or burh, remains on the castle platform. These walls, formed of large and small stones and pebbles from the sea-beach, laid in very thick masses of mortar, have been built round the edge of the embankment, or rather escarpment, outside which the ground falls in the large and very deep ditch surrounding this wall, now thickly wooded ; outside this ditch was another strong and high earthen rampart at a much lower level, from which the ground level is reached. There is no gatehouse, but the entrance is at the S. end of the work, which is an oval of about 560 feet by 280, and near it remains a large portion of a lofty tower, which has been the dwelling-house and keep in one ; it is 40 feet square and about 70 feet high, was once filled by three timber floors, and from it some notion can be formed of this fortress of Braose. It was probably never inhabited by an owner after the death of the last William de Braose, though enough remained of it in the seventeenth century to allow of a Royalist garrison holding the place, which, in consequence, was demolished after the Civil War. The masonry has been very fine, dating about 1095, and in the upper storey is an exceedingly noble window.
“The castles of England, their story and structure, vol 1”, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896 p. 68

Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight.

Carisbrooke Castle. Isle of Wight.
early 1910s
Publisher: might be Gottschalk, Dreyfuss & Davis (logo is a G over D&D in a star).

Google Street View.

Well House Donkeys postcards

English Heritage: Plan of castle

Carisbrooke has been a central place of power and defence on the Isle of Wight for over 1,000 years. During that time it has been a Saxon fortress and a castle of the Norman conquest, much remodelled during the Middle Ages and under Elizabeth I. Most famously, Charles I was held prisoner here during the Civil War, shortly before his execution. Since then Carisbrooke Castle has remained a symbolic centre for the island, not least as the residence of its governor.
English Heritage

Following the Norman Conquest the Isle of Wight was granted to William FitzOsbern, a cousin of the new King. He built a castle within the boundary of the former Saxon burh sectioning off the North East corner with a deep ditch and wooden palisade. When William died his heir rebelled against the King in 1075 forfeiting his ownership of Carisbrooke. The castle was then held by the Crown until 1100 when it was granted by Henry I to Richard de Redvers who re-built the it, still within the Saxon enclosure, as a motte-and-bailey. It was either he or his son, Baldwin, who replaced the original timber defences with stone. . . . Carisbrooke Castle continued to be owned by descendants of the Redvers family through the remainder of the twelfth and the vast bulk of the thirteenth centuries. In 1260 the last of the line, Countess Isabella de Redvers, inherited the castle and during her tenure extensive upgrades were made at the site which she made her primary residence. When she died in 1293 she sold the castle, on her deathbed, to Edward I and it remained in Royal ownership thereafter with various upgrades being made. The distinctive drum towers were added to the Gatehouse in 1335.
Castles Forts Battles

Carisbrooke is the Island’s only medieval castle. It was begun soon after the Norman Conquest, by William FitzOsbern, the Island’s first Norman lord. Its central location reflects its original purpose: to control the potentially hostile local population. The typical Norman motte and bailey layout, established 900 years ago, is still clear today. The steep banks, high walls and remains of towers and loopholes are reminders that it was designed to withstand medieval siege weapons. When the development of artillery made the old motte and bailey obsolete, the Castle’s military relevance was extended in the 1590s by the addition of new defences. The new fortification surrounds the out-of-date medieval ramparts and was designed to withstand an artillery attack. It made Carisbrooke one of the most up-to-date fortifications in the country.
Carisbrooke Castle Museum

Keep Steps, Carisbrooke Castle, I. of W.
Publisher: Max Ettlinger, London & New York

Google Street View.


“The castles of England, their story and structure, vol 1”, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896 p.200

The Norman keep of Richard de Redvers stands on the ancient English mound at the N.E. angle of the inner ward, surrounded by its moat ; it is an irregular polygon in shape, a shell keep 60 feet across, with walls of great strength and thickness, the access to which is by a long flight of stairs, the postern being protected by double gates and a portcullis. One room only remains, in which is a deep well, the others are destroyed, but there remains a small staircase to the top, whence a very fine view is obtained ; at the foot was a sally-port defended by a bastion, which has disappeared. The entrance is on the W. by a fine machicolated gate-way, flanked by two round embattled towers, through a high pointed archway with portcullis grooves ; all this was built by Anthony, Lord Scales, who had the lordship in 1474, and whose arms are on the gatehouse, as they are on Middleton Tower near Lynn, with the Rose of York. Inside are the older gates, with latticed ironwork, and on the right the ruins of the guardhouse, and the chapel of St. Nicholas, built in 1738 on the site of the ancient chapel. On the N. are the ruins of the buildings occupied by King Charles, a small room being shown as his bedroom. The governor’s quarters, barracks and other buildings are all of different periods. In the centre of the S. wall are remains of a mural tower, and there are the ruins of the Mountjoy, a Norman tower in the S.E. Corner, the walls here being 18 feet thick : E. are two other towers.
“The castles of England, their story and structure, vol 1”, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896 p.201

The Old Fox With Its Teeth Drawn, Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire

The Old Fox
“The Popular Series”

Google Maps.

Originally a pub known as The Fox and then The Old Fox, after its license was withdrawn around 1900 it became a temperance house and tea cottage trading under the name of “The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn”. It is now a private house. A public house also known as the “Old Fox” lies about 200 metres to the south west.
Historic England

The following comes from the Town and Country Talk column published in the Watford Observer on March 18, 1949.
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Headed “Painless Extraction”, [the article] reads: “Nearby is another relic of bygone days. An old thatched cottage, standing on the side of a pond, bears the inscription ‘The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn’. Once it bore the title of ‘The Old Fox’ and Mr Isaac Dalby, a 68-year-old smallholder, who lives next door, can well remember the happy days when a threepenny bit passed over the counter produced a pint of beer and ten cigarettes. Rumour has it, however, that some of the customers were not able to avoid the pond when coming out after an evening in the snug atmosphere of the inn, with its timbered roof and strong ale. In any case, the late Lord Knutsford (Mr Arthur Holland-Hibbert as he then was) acquired the property and ‘drew its teeth’ by turning it into a temperance cafe.”

There’s a little more on the place in A Souvenir of Bricket Wood”, an excellent booklet published by the Bricket Wood Society in 1982. In a section on public houses, the booklet states “at the end of the 16th Century there were over 500 officially licensed premises in hertfordshire. There were three types of public house – the inn (providing food, drink and lodging), the tavern (selling wine, sometimes food and lodging) and the alehouse, later beerhouse (selling ale or beer but no food or lodging).” It continues: “In the latter half of the 19th Century, there were seven licensed premises in the Bricket Wood area – The Chequers, The Green Man, The Blackboy, The Fox, The Young Fox, The Fox and Hounds and The Gate, four of which exist today.” Not even four any more, I’m afraid (but I suppose you could technically add Moor Mill to the list nowadays). Anyway, the “Souvenir” continues: “About the turn of the century, The Old Fox had its licence revoked and became known as The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn; it served teas until about 50 years ago 9i.e. the early 1930s).
Watford Observer

In the late 19th Century there were two public houses within the bounds of the Conservation Area – ‘The Fox’ and ‘The Old Fox with His Teeth Drawn’. The former
remains a public house. Names have changed over the years and the progression of ‘fox’ names is slightly confusing…’The Old Fox with His Teeth Drawn’ began life as ‘The Fox’, then became ‘The Old Fox’ until its license was withdrawn in 1893. The current Old Fox P.H. began life as The Fox, but known as The ‘Young’ Fox and the two pubs competed for trade until A. Holland-Hibbert (later Viscount Knutsford), bought The Old Fox in 1893. He was a teetotaler and revoked its license in circa 1917 due to the abuse of drinking by the newly attracted in-comers. It then served teas (and sweets and flowers) as a Temperance House under the new name ‘The Old Fox With His Teeth Drawn’. Previously a single storey small scale weatherboarded building, it is now a private house, white rendered with rooms in the roof, and the only thatched property in Bricket Wood. Wrapping around the front of the house is an old pond, discernable in part on the Tithe Map, which is still inhabited by waterfowl.
Conservation Area Character Statement, St Albans City & District Council (PDF)

Old Manor House, Sheffield, Yorkshire

Sheffield: The Old Manor House.
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

Google Street View.

Sheffield Manor Lodge, also known as Sheffield Manor or locally as Manor Castle, is a lodge built about 1516 in what then was a large deer park southeast of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, to provide a country retreat and further accommodate George Talbot, the 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, and his large family. . . . The remains of Sheffield Manor Lodge include parts of the kitchens, long gallery, and the Grade II* listed Turret House (also called “Queen Mary’s Tower”), which contains fine sixteenth-century ceilings. Some evidence points to the Turret House being built by 1574, when the Earl of Shrewsbury’s accounts record payments for masonry work on the “Tyrret” at Sheffield Manor. It has three storeys of two rooms. The stair at one corner rises above the building onto the roof. This seems to have been designed as a viewing platform and is comparable with the “Hunting Tower” at Chatsworth House. . . After Sheffield Manor fell into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk, it was neglected, sold to tenant farmers, and largely dismantled in 1706. Some remaining walls and a window were removed to the grounds of Queen’s Tower in Norfolk Park by Robert Marnock in 1839.

The early hunting lodge was regularly extended – at least six building phases have been identified prior to the early 16th century. George Talbot, the fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, was the first Lord of the Manor to take an active personal interest in local affairs, and expanded and upgraded the existing lodge considerably, so that by the beginning of the 1500s quite an extensive complex of buildings, a grand Tudor manor house, was in existence. . . . During the 1570s, the sixth Earl and his wife undertook a major programme of remodelling the manor house, adding a new prestigious brick wing and, in 1574, the Turret House – a new gatehouse and the only building that remains today.
Sheffield Manor Lodge

After the death of George Talbot, the Earls rarely visited the site and the land was leased to tenant farmers. It fell to the Duke of Norfolks in 1660 who have owned the land ever since. In 1708 most buildings were demolished and used for local building works. One tower stood until 1793 when it collapsed during a storm. The Turret House remains to this day having been used as part of farm buildings. . . . In the 1870s, the 15th Duke of Norfolk restored the Turret House, removing the surrounding farm buildings. The stained glass windows on the upper floors date from this Victorian restoration.
Sheffield Manor Lodge

Sheffield: Queen’s Room, Old Manor House
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

Google Street View (approximate).

The principal remains at Sheffield consist of a few walls and chimney stack and the so-called Turret House, the building especially erected by Shrewsbury in 1574 for, it is believed, the safe keeping of the Queen. It was restored by the late Duke of Norfolk in 1872, after it had been discovered among some farm buildings. It is square, three storeyed, and stands outside the defences of the Castle. Tiles of French origin were discovered here round the fireplace of what has long been known as Queen Mary’s Room. This battlemented Tudor building, with a lead-covered roof, has a turret from which it takes its name and three chimney stacks. It faces the main entrance to the Manor Lodge or House. A stone stairway leads from the ground floor to the turret. Mary would be under constant observation in this compact dwelling and also separated from Shrewsbury’s household. During the early part of her stay in Sheffield she was free of the splendid park, but afterwards took her exercise on the leaden roof.
“In The Steps of Mary, Queen Of Scots”, Marjorie Bowen (1952)

Cleeve Lock, River Thames, Oxfordshire


Google Street View.

Cleeve Lock is a lock on the River Thames, in Oxfordshire, England. It is located just upstream of Goring and Streatley villages, on the eastern side of the river within the village of Goring. There was formerly a separate Cleeve village, after which the lock is named, but it is now considered to be part of Goring. The first lock was built in 1787 by the Thames Navigation Commissioners. The reach above the lock is the longest, and the reach below it is the shortest, on the non-tidal river. . . . There was a flash lock recorded on the site in the 16th century. The first pound lock was built of oak in 1787 alongside a meadow which was then known as Winch Meadow. It was originally to be called Streatley Lock, but in the event took its name from the village of Cleeve on the opposite side of the river. Until 1869 Cleeve Lock and Goring Lock were usually operated a single keeper. The lock was rebuilt in 1874.

Way back in the 16th century a flash lock was documented here at Cleeve, the placename coming from a cliff, or clift – a cutting of a channel by water. This weir was converted into an oak pound lock in 1787 and rebuilt in stone in 1874 and converted to hydraulic operation in 1966/7. The lock had its own lock house by the tail gates but this was demolished and a new house was built in 1958 alongside the centre of the lock chamber.
The River Thames Guide