Grand Central Terminal Station, New York City
GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL.
NEW YORK CITY.
The Grand Central Terminal covers 69.8 acres facing East 42nd Street, from Vanderbilt to Lexington Avenue, the largest and most costly Railroad Station in the world. It has 31 miles of tracks under cover, with a capacity for handling 200 trains and 70,000 passengers each hour. There are 42 tracks for long distance express trains on the 42nd Street level, and 25 trakcs for surburban trains in concourse. 25 feet below the Street.
c.1918 (from a postmark on another card in the same series)
Publisher: American Art Publishing Co, New York City (1918-1925)
GCT is the largest train station in the world in terms of area occupied and number of platforms. The terminal is spread over 49 acres and has 44 platforms. The station is used by more than one million people a week. It serves the Metro-North Commuter railroad, which passes through the city’s suburbs and goes out to Connecticut and New Jersey. The station is currently owned and operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).
As train traffic increased in the late 1890s and early 1900s, so did the problems of smoke and soot produced by steam locomotives in the Park Avenue Tunnel, the only approach to the station. This contributed to a crash on January 8, 1902, when a southbound train overran signals in the smoky Park Avenue Tunnel and collided with another southbound train, killing 15 people and injuring more than 30 others.] Shortly afterward, the New York state legislature passed a law to ban all steam trains in Manhattan by 1908. William J. Wilgus, the New York Central’s vice president, later wrote a letter to New York Central president William H. Newman. Wilgus proposed to electrify and place the tracks to Grand Central in tunnels, as well as constructing a new railway terminal with two levels of tracks and making other infrastructure improvements. In March 1903, Wilgus presented a more detailed proposal to the New York Central board. The railroad’s board of directors approved the $35 million project in June 1903; ultimately, almost all of Wilgus’s proposal would be implemented.
The entire building was to be torn down in phases and replaced by the current Grand Central Terminal. It was to be the biggest terminal in the world, both in the size of the building and in the number of tracks. The Grand Central Terminal project was divided into eight phases, though the construction of the terminal itself comprised only two of these phases.
Design competitions for major projects were commonplace in the early 1900s, and the railroad launched one in 1903. Four firms entered: McKim Mead & White, Samuel Huckel, Jr., Reed & Stem, and Daniel Burnham. Reed & Stem won. Its innovative scheme featured pedestrian ramps inside, and a ramp-like roadway outside that wrapped around the building to connect the northern and southern halves of Park Avenue. Were these innovations enough to make Grand Central truly grand? The railroad wasn’t sure. So it hired another architecture firm, Warren & Wetmore, which proposed a monumental façade of three triumphal arches. The two chosen firms collaborated as “Associated Architects.” It was a stormy partnership, but the final design combined the best ideas of both.
Grand Central Terminal
RTAP (official website)
The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain, is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau. It is mostly underground and 214 kilometres (133 mi) long. . . . The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle). The system expanded quickly until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s. The network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations.
Media Centre for Art History: panorama of a station platform
The Gare du Nord (English: station of the North or North station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France. The station accommodates trains between the capital and Northern France via the Paris–Lille railway, as well as to international destinations in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. . . . The chairman of the Chemin de Fer du Nord railway company, James Mayer de Rothschild, chose the French architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff to design the current station. Construction of the new complex was carried out between May 1861 to December 1865; the new station actually opened for service while still under construction during 1864. The façade was designed around a triumphal arch and used many slabs of stone. The building has the usual U-shape of a terminus station.
The Snowdon Mountain Railway is a narrow gauge rack and pinion mountain railway in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is a tourist railway that travels for 4.7 miles (7.6 km) from Llanberis to the summit of Snowdon, the highest peak in Wales. The SMR is the only public rack and pinion railway in the United Kingdom, and after more than 100 years of operation it remains a popular tourist attraction, carrying more than 140,000 passengers annually.
1894-96 Snowdon Mountain Railway was constructed between December 1894, when the first sod was cut by Enid Assheton-Smith (after whom locomotive No 2 was named), and February 1896, at a total cost of £63,800 (equivalent to £6,775,000 in 2016). 150 men with picks, shovels and dynamite laid almost eight kilometres of track up the mountain – all in fourteen months.
1895-96 The technology for safely transporting carriages of people up and down a mountainside had existed in Switzerland for some time, so that was where the newly-formed Snowdon Mountain Tramroad and Hotels Company Ltd. went. They purchased five Swiss steam locomotives — L.A.D.A.S, Enid, Wyddfa, Snowdon and Moel Siabod – three of which are still in service today.
1922-24 Three more steam locomotives were built in Switzerland — Padarn, Ralph and Eryri — along with two more carriages. All of the railway’s steam locomotives were built by the Swiss Locomotive & Manufacturing Co. of Winterhur at a cost of £1,525 each (which would have the equivalent purchasing power of around £120,000 today). In 1924, the Snowdon Mountain Tramroad and Hotels Company Ltd sold the Royal Victoria Hotel and formed as Snowdon Mountain Railway.
1958-63 During the 50’s and 60’s the four original locomotives were sent to Hunslet to be overhauled, No.2 in 1958, No.5 in 1959, No.3 in 1960 and No.4 in 1963, and the original open carriages were remodelled so that they became enclosed, in an attempt to better protect passengers from the elements.
Snowdon Mountain Railway
Ismailia was founded in 1863, during the construction of the Suez Canal, by Khedive Ismail the Magnificent, after whom the city is named. Following the Battle of Kafr-el-Dawwar in 1882 the British established a base there. The head office of the Suez Canal Authority is located in Ismailia at the shore of Lake Timsah. It has a large number of buildings dating from British and French involvement with the Canal. Most of these buildings are currently used by Canal employees and officials.
In 1847, the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad reached Indianapolis. Railroads connected the young state capital to the rest of the nation. Over the next decade, other major rail lines would reach town. Because the railroads crossed through at various locations, connections for freight and travelers were complicated. In August 1849, Union Railway Company formed to solve the problem. The company laid tracks to connect the railroads, then built a large brick train shed where all lines met – America’s first Union Station, which was located on this site. As the city’s rail-based trade grew, rail, business, and civic leaders wanted a new station befitting the importance of railroads to Indianapolis. In 1886, the railroads hired Pittsburgh architect Thomas Rodd to plan a new “head house,” or main office/waiting hall.
National Park Service
18 St was part of the first New York subway, opened in 1904. Like most local stations on the line, it is just below street level to reduce stair height, so there is no mezzanine, and it has separate fare controls on platform level on each side….When the Board of Transportation embarked on a platform extension program after World War II, they decided to close 18 St rather than enlarge it.
Abandoned Stations: 18 St (with more information and images)
NYC Subway (link to more images on the right)
Postmarked & dated 1907