Balliol College and Matyrs’ Memorial. Oxford, England


Oxford, Balliol College and Matyrs’ Memorial.
c.1910
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co

Google Street View.

Balliol has existed as a community of scholars on its present Broad Street site without interruption since about 1263. By this token it claims to be the oldest college in Oxford, and in the English-speaking world. In 1260 a dispute between John de Balliol and the Bishop of Durham erupted into violence and Henry III condemned Balliol’s behaviour. The Bishop had Balliol whipped, and imposed a penance on him of a substantial act of charity. This he did, by renting a property and creating a house of scholars, which was soon known by his name. After John de Balliol’s death in 1269, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, guaranteed the future of the ‘House of the Scholars of Balliol’ by establishing a permanent endowment and giving it Statutes in 1282 – so bringing into being Balliol College as we know it today.
Balliol College

The Martyrs’ Memorial, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott and built of magnesium limestone, has stood as a focal point at the south end of St Giles since its completion in 1843, when it replaced “a picturesque but tottering old house”. It was modelled on the Waltham Cross. The Martyrs’ Memorial was erected almost 300 years after the event it commemorates, and says as much about the religious controversies of the 1840s as those of the 1550s. It commemorates three Protestant martyrs (Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer) who were burnt at the stake in Oxford in 1555.
Oxford History

Al-Azhar University, Cairo


CAIRO – El Azhar university
Postmarked 1922
Publisher: P. Coustoulides

Al-Azhar University is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo, it is Egypt’s oldest degree-granting university and is renowned as the most prestigious university for Sunni Islamic learning.
Wikipedia.

Al-Azhar began as a mosque built in 970 AD during the Fatmid era, and became a Sunni institution after the conquest by Saladin in 1171. With the abolition of the caliphate and the office of Shaykh al-Islam (seyhul Islam) in Istanbul in 1924, al-Azhar became the paramount Islamic institution. There is no clear consensus as to when al-Azhar became a centre of learning. Al-Azhar is inclusive of the four major Sunni schools of law, the Ashari and Maturidi schools of theology, and seven major Sufi orders. Al-Azhar has been through several stages of reform: in the nineteenth century it was transformed from madrasa to university, with the Azhar Organisation Laws of 1896 and 1911 creating a centralised bureaucracy that allowed the institution’s head, the Grand Sheikh, to oversee its general administration.
University of Oxford: Changing Structures of Islamic Authority

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England

The University of Cambridge (legal name: The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world’s fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two English ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge.

Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 semi-autonomous constituent colleges and over 150 academic departments, faculties and other institutions organised into six schools. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. All students are members of a college. Cambridge does not have a main campus, and its colleges and central facilities are scattered throughout the city.
Wikipedia.

Website.


Christ College Gateway, Cambridge.
Postmarked 1913.
“Cantab Series”

Christ’s College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college includes the Master, the Fellows of the College, and about 450 undergraduate and 170 graduate students. The college was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God’s House. In 1505, the college was granted a new royal charter, was given a substantial endowment by Lady Margaret Beaufort, and changed its name to Christ’s College, becoming the twelfth of the Cambridge colleges to be founded in its current form. The college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge’s most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton.
Wikipedia.

Clare College & bridge


Corpus Christi College. Cambridge.
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Stengel & Co, Dresden

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Brasenose College, Oxford, England


Quadrangle, Brasenose College, Oxford
c.1910
Publishers: Valentine

Google Street View.

Brasenose College (BNC), officially The Principal and Scholars of the King’s Hall and College of Brasenose in Oxford, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1509, with the library and chapel added in the mid-17th century and the new quadrangle in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Wikipedia

“Brasenose was a hall before it was a college, and a lodging before it was a hall. But it has always occupied the same site, halfway between the Bodleian Library and St Mary’s Church, a site at the very heart of Oxford. . . . Brasenose entered the nineteenth century as an Anglican monopoly, a male preserve, independently financed, largely governed by bachelor Fellows in holy orders. The curriculum was narrow—mostly classics, mathematics, and divinity—and the basis of recruitment narrower still. . . .”
Victorian Web

Before the foundation of Brasenose College part of the site was occupied by Brasenose Hall, one of the mediaeval Oxford institutions which began as lodging houses and gradually became more formal places of learning. Various other halls and houses occupied the site alongside Brasenose Hall, but very little is known about the Hall itself. However, we do know that it was situated on the site of the College’s entrance tower (situated on Old Quad).
A Concise History of Brasenose (official website)

Lucknow University, Lucknow, India


University College, Lucknow
1920s

How a two-room memorial school turned into a 225-acre Lucknow University

For well over 30 years the Canning College remained in the Kaisar Bagh building, but this site was not suitable for the development of a big residential institution. The provincial Government was prevailed upon to come to its assistance and it readily consented to purchase the college building for a sum of Rs. 2,10,000/- to house the Provincial Museum. In 1905 the Government handed over to the college the extensive walled garden of about 90 acres on the north of the river Gomti, popularly known as “Badshah Bagh”, originally a garden house of King Nasir-ud-Din Haidar, and, since the pacification of Avadh, the Lucknow residence of the Maharaja of Kapurthala. Of the old royal building of this garden, only the Lal Baradari, one lofty and handsome gate and one canal are still present today.

After another financial aid by Maharaja Sir Bhagwati Singh of Balrampur, the implementation of a new building started taking shape. The plans of the building were entrusted to the well-known architect. Sir Swinton Jacob, who prepared an impressive design in the Indo-Saracenic style. The plans of the building were considered by the experts to be so distinctive and elegant that they were subsequently sent for demonstration at the Exhibition held in London on the occasion of the Festival of Empire in 1911.
Wikipedia.

Christ Church, Oxford, England


Oxford, Christ Church, West Front. (Founded A. D. 1546.)
Publisher: F. Frith & Co, Reigate

Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as “The House”) is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese (Christ Church Cathedral and its cathedral school), which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016. It is also the wealthiest college with an endowment of £577.6m as of 2019. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower (designed by Sir Christopher Wren), Tom Quad (the largest quadrangle in Oxford), and the Great Dining Hall which was also the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War.
Wikipedia.

Old Government House/Queensland University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


THE QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY, BRISBANE, Q.
1910s

Street View

The government residential building was constructed to accommodate the first Governor of Queensland, Sir George Bowen, and his family. On 22 May 1860, the first Queensland parliament met. One month later a vote to fund a new government house was successful. The site chosen for the building was a high point of Gardens Point overlooking the Brisbane Botanic Gardens and with expansive vistas of the Brisbane River. There was an issue with the building being built in Brisbane, as the capital of Queensland had not yet been decided.

The two-storey building was designed by colonial architect Charles Tiffin in the Classical revival style in 1860. The front half of the building contained the Governor’s public and private rooms while the rear housed the service section. The front of the house had a plain design without displays of grandeur so as not to affront politicians and country citizens.

The first stage of the building was completed in March 1862 by builder Joshua Jeays. The building is built from locally sourced materials, with sandstone facades, Brisbane tuff (stone) (sometimes referred to incorrectly as ‘Porphyry’) to the service areas, red cedar, hoop pine and cast iron.
Wikipedia (Old Government House, Queensland)

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Bridge of Sighs, Cambridge


The Bridge of Sighs, St. Johns College, Cambridge
Postmarked: 1904
Publisher: Henry Moss & Co, London

The Bridge of Sighs in Cambridge, England is a covered bridge at St John’s College, Cambridge University. It was built in 1831 and crosses the River Cam between the college’s Third Court and New Court. The architect was Henry Hutchinson.
Wikipedia.

St. John’s College.


Cambridge. Bridge of Sighs.
Postmarked: 1936
Publisher: Photocrom Co.

St John’s College, Cambridge


Cambridge. St John’s Gate & Divinity School.
Postmarked 1907
Publisher: Boots Cash Chemist

St John’s College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge (the full, formal name of the college is the College of St John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge) founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. . . . The site was originally occupied by the Hospital of St John the Evangelist, probably founded around 1200. The hospital infirmary was located where the east end of the current chapel now stands. By 1470 Thomas Rotherham Chancellor of the university, extended to the hospital the privileges of membership of the university. This led to St. John’s House, as it was then known, being conferred the status of a college. By the early 16th century the hospital was dilapidated and suffering from a lack of funds. Lady Margaret Beaufort, having endowed Christ’s College sought to found a new college, and chose the hospital site at the suggestion of John Fisher, her chaplain and Bishop of Rochester. However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St John’s in her will, and it was largely the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded. He had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, and the Bishop of Ely to suppress the religious hospital, by which time held only a Master and three Augustinian brethren, and convert it to a college.

The college received its charter on 9 April 1511. Further complications arose in obtaining money from the estate of Lady Margaret to pay for the foundation and it was not until 22 October 1512 that a codicil was obtained in the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margaret’s executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates. When Lady Margaret’s executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, and an imposing gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury. The doors were to be closed each day at dusk, sealing the monastic community from the outside world. Over the course of the following five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, and now has twelve courts, the most of any Oxford or Cambridge College.
Wikipedia.

Bridge of Sighs.


Entrance Gate. St John’s College. Cambridge.
On back:
Entrance Gate, St. John’s College.–This is the second largest College in Cambridge, and was founded in 1511 on the site of St. John’s Hospital, which dated from the 12th century. Part of the College buildings overlook the river, which is spanned by two bridges belonging to St John’s, one the famous “Bridge of Sighs.”
Postmarked 1931.
Publisher: Raphael Tuck & Sons

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