Balliol College and Matyrs’ Memorial. Oxford, England


Oxford, Balliol College and Matyrs’ Memorial.
c.1910
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co

Google Street View.

Balliol has existed as a community of scholars on its present Broad Street site without interruption since about 1263. By this token it claims to be the oldest college in Oxford, and in the English-speaking world. In 1260 a dispute between John de Balliol and the Bishop of Durham erupted into violence and Henry III condemned Balliol’s behaviour. The Bishop had Balliol whipped, and imposed a penance on him of a substantial act of charity. This he did, by renting a property and creating a house of scholars, which was soon known by his name. After John de Balliol’s death in 1269, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, guaranteed the future of the ‘House of the Scholars of Balliol’ by establishing a permanent endowment and giving it Statutes in 1282 – so bringing into being Balliol College as we know it today.
Balliol College

The Martyrs’ Memorial, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott and built of magnesium limestone, has stood as a focal point at the south end of St Giles since its completion in 1843, when it replaced “a picturesque but tottering old house”. It was modelled on the Waltham Cross. The Martyrs’ Memorial was erected almost 300 years after the event it commemorates, and says as much about the religious controversies of the 1840s as those of the 1550s. It commemorates three Protestant martyrs (Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer) who were burnt at the stake in Oxford in 1555.
Oxford History

St. Augustines Cross, Ramsgate, England


St. Augustines Cross | Ramsgate
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: E.S.

Google Street View.

The cross was commissioned in 1884 by Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, at the time Minister for Foreign Affairs and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.
He was inspired to erect it after hearing the story of a massive oak tree felled within living memory and known as the Augustine Oak, one of a group of trees fringing a field which he owned.

According to local legend, under this oak in AD 597 the first meeting was held between King Æthelberht and the monk Augustine, newly arrived from Rome. Augustine had recently landed on the Isle of Thanet, having been sent by Pope Gregory to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity and thereby re-establish the faith in a country in which it had faded with the fall of the Roman Empire. Not far to the south-east was the stream in which, the legend tells us, Augustine baptised his first convert and which subsequently became known as St Augustine’s Well. Tradition holds that Æhelberht was converted to Christianity and Augustine baptised him on Whit Sunday in AD 597. On Christmas Day of that year, according to a papal letter of AD 598, more than 10,000 baptisms were carried out.
English Heritage

Burns Monument, Ayr, Scotland


Burns Monument, Ayr
Postmarked 1932

Google Street View (approximate).

Burns Monument was the first memorial built to the memory of the Poet Robert Burns in Ayrshire, and is close to the bank of the River Doon in Alloway. It is situated only half a mile South of the thatched cottage where he was born on 25th January 1759.
Burns Scotland

Less than 20 years after Burns’s death, a committee made up of some of his most ardent supporters began to make plans to memorialise the great poet. The result is this 21m (70ft) high Grecian-style temple, designed by Sir Thomas Hamilton Junior and complete with nine pillars representing muses from Greek mythology. The monument was funded by subscriptions and opened in 1823. There’s no admission fee for the monument and gardens, but we still raise funds today to help conserve this mighty memorial for everyone to enjoy.
National Trust for Scotland

Stonehenge, England


Stonehenge – View looking E.
c. 1920?
H.M. Office of Works
“Photogravure by the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Co, London”

Google Street View.

Skyscape: virtual Tour throughout the day
Stonehenge: To-Day and Yesterday (1916)

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, two miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, each around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, seven feet (2.1 m) wide, and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred tumuli (burial mounds). Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC.
Wikipedia.

In about 2500 BC the stones were set up in the centre of the monument. Two types of stone are used at Stonehenge – the larger sarsens and the smaller ‘bluestones’. The sarsens were erected in two concentric arrangements – an inner horseshoe and an outer circle – and the bluestones were set up between them in a double arc. . . . From the middle Bronze Age, less communal effort went into the construction of ceremonial monuments such as Stonehenge and more on activities such as the creation of fields. . . .The earliest surviving written references to Stonehenge date from the medieval period, and from the 14th century onwards there are increasing references to Stonehenge and drawings and paintings of it.
English Heritage

The modern story of restorations at Stonehenge begins in 1880 when the site was surveyed by William Flinders-Petrie, who also established the numbering system for the stones that is in use to this day. The very first documented intervention to prevent stone collapse at Stonehenge happened in 1881 and is described here by Simon Banton. In 1893, the Inspector of Ancient Monuments determined that several stones were in in danger of falling and he was subsequently proved correct when stone 22 collapsed in a New Year’s Eve storm on 31 December 1900. The stone remained intact and was not damaged, but lintel-122 broke into two pieces with such a shock that a fragment was found 81 ft away. They were the first stones to fall since 1797 (after a rapid thaw succeeded a hard frost) and, as the guardian of the site was ill at the time, Sir Edmund Antrobus paid for a police constable to keep sightseers in order.
Silent Earth: Restorations at Stonehenge


“Stonehenge: Stones being repositioned during restoration work (1914)”


Stonehenge – Part of outer circle with Friars Heel
c. 1920?
H.M. Office of Works
“Photogravure by The Vandyck Printers Ltd, Bristol & London”

Lifeboat Memorial, Aldeburgh, England


Lifeboat Memorial, Aldeburgh
c.1910

Google Maps.

The crew from Aldeburgh in Suffolk were responding to reports a ship had run aground in heavy seas on 7 December 1899. Their lifeboat was so battered during its launch it capsized, trapping six men who could not be rescued. A seventh man died of injuries later. . . . The 18-strong crew were attempting to launch one of the Royal National Lifeboat Association (RNLI)’s first self-righting lifeboats when it hit a ridge on the shingle beach. It capsized in shallow water, meaning it was unable to right itself, and the heavy seas pushed it up onto the beach, trapping the six. The rest were thrown into the water and survived, but one was so seriously injured he died three months later.
BBC News.

Lifeboat disaster memorial at Aldeburgh
Seven of the 18 crew lost their lives
The names of the seven are :
John BUTCHER, age 52; Charles CRISP, age 51; Herbert William DOWNING, age 23; Allan Arthur EASTER, age 28; Thomas MORRIS, age 36; James Miller WARD, age 21 and Walter George WARD, age 33.

Geograph (photo of crosses)

Gelert’s Grave, Beddelgert, Wales


Beddelgert, Gelert’s Grave

Google Street View.

A short walk south of the village, following the footpath along the banks of the Glaslyn leads to Beddgelert’s most famous historical feature; ‘Gelert’s Grave’. According to legend, the stone monument in the field marks the resting place of ‘Gelert’, the faithful hound of the medieval Welsh Prince Llewelyn the Great. The story, as written on the tombstone reads:

“In the 13th century Llewelyn, prince of North Wales, had a palace at Beddgelert. One day he went hunting without Gelert, ‘The Faithful Hound’, who was unaccountably absent. On Llewelyn’s return the truant, stained and smeared with blood, joyfully sprang to meet his master. The prince alarmed hastened to find his son, and saw the infant’s cot empty, the bedclothes and floor covered with blood. The frantic father plunged his sword into the hound’s side, thinking it had killed his heir. The dog’s dying yell was answered by a child’s cry. Llewelyn searched and discovered his boy unharmed, but nearby lay the body of a mighty wolf which Gelert had slain. The prince filled with remorse is said never to have smiled again. He buried Gelert here”.
Beddelgert Tourism

To this day, a cairn of stones marks the place, and the name Beddgelert means in Welsh ‘The grave of Gelert’. Every year thousands of people visit the grave of this brave dog; slight problem however, is that the cairn of stones is actually less than 200 years old!

Nevertheless this story has great appeal. History and myth appear to have become a little confused when in 1793, a man called David Pritchard came to live in Beddgelert. He was the landlord of the Royal Goat Inn and knew the story of the brave dog and adapted it to fit the village, and so benefit his trade at the inn. He apparently invented the name Gelert, and introduced the name Llywelyn into the story because of the Prince’s connection with the nearby Abbey, and it was with the help of the parish clerk that Pritchard, not Llywelyn, raised the cairn!
Historic UK

Pagodas, Mandalay, Myanmar


Pagodas Mandalay
c.1910

1911 Map of Mandalay

The Sandamuni Pagoda (also Sandamani, because it contains the largest iron Buddha, the “Sandamani”), or Paya, is located to the southeast of Mandalay Hill and bears a resemblance to the nearby Kuthodaw pagoda because of the large number of slender whitewashed ancillary stupas on the grounds. The pagoda complex was erected on the location of King Mindon’s provisional palace, the “Nan Myey Bon Tha.” which he used until his permanent Royal Palace was completed in the center of the Royal City (now Mandalay Fort). It was built as a memorial to King Mindon’s younger half-brother, statesman, reformer, stimulating personality and confidante, the Crown Prince Kanaung, who had helped him seize power from Pagan Min in 1853. Two of Mindon’s sons, Princes Myingun, (or Myint Kun) and Myin Kon Taing disappointed in being excluded from the succession, launched a palace revolution against their father on June 8, 1866, and assassinated Crown Prince Kanaung and three other princes: Malun, Saku and Pyinsi. The princes were buried on the grounds where they died. The royal residence was demolished the next year as the court was moved to the new Royal Palace. In 1874, King Mindon had the pagoda built near the graves of the Crown Prince and the other members of the royal family who lost their lives in the 1866 coup.
Asian Historical Architecture

Marble Arch, London


The Marble Arch, London
Postmarked 1908
“The Auto Photo Series”

Marble Arch is a 19th-century white marble-faced triumphal arch in London, England. The structure was designed by John Nash in 1827 to be the state entrance to the cour d’honneur of Buckingham Palace; it stood near the site of what is today the three-bayed, central projection of the palace containing the well-known balcony. In 1851, on the initiative of architect and urban planner Decimus Burton, a one-time pupil of John Nash, it was relocated and following the widening of Park Lane in the early 1960s to where it is now sited, incongruently isolated, on a large traffic island at the junction of Oxford Street, Park Lane and Edgware Road. . . . Nash’s three-arch design is based on that of the Arch of Constantine in Rome and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in Paris. The triumphal arch is faced with Carrara marble with embellishments of marble extracted from quarries near Seravezza. . . . Construction began in 1827, but was cut short in 1830, following the death of the spendthrift King George IV—the rising costs were unacceptable to the new king, William IV, who later tried to offload the uncompleted palace onto Parliament as a substitute for the recently destroyed Palace of Westminster. Work restarted in 1832, this time under the supervision of Edward Blore, who greatly reduced Nash’s planned attic stage and omitted its sculpture, including the statue of George IV. The arch was completed in 1833.
Wikipedia.

Street View

Cathedral and Flora Macdonald’s Statue, Inverness, Scotland


Cathedral and Flora Macdonald’s Statue, Inverness
Dated 1914

Google Street View.

Monument to Flora Macdonald, Castle Hill, Inverness,” by Andrew Davidson (1841-1925). 1896-99. Bronze group, including the collie dog. The monument stands in front of the Sheriff Court, high on Castle Hill, Inverness, so that, as John Gifford says, Flora is shown gazing “down the Great Glen” (197) — the valley of the River Ness. Flora Macdonald was the young woman who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie escape from Scotland after the Jacobites were routed at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. According to the “Inverness City Trail,” the statue of the Jacobite heroine was paid for” by the generosity of “Captain J. Henderson MacDonald of Caskieben, and of the 78th Highlanders.” As well as an inscription of Flora Macdonald’s name in the granite pedestal, there is a bronze plaque, in the shape of a shield, with a quotation in both Gaelic and English.
Victorian Web