The Gardens, Bournemouth, England


The Gardens, Bournemouth
c.1910
Publishers: Sydenham & Co, Bournemouth

Google Street View.

The Lower Gardens in Bournemouth are only a five minute walk from the main shopping centre, the beach and the pier. They are Grade II Listed Gardens and have the TripAdvisor Travellers’ Choice Award for 2020. Visitors who walk through the gardens will be amazed by the beautiful floral displays that combine a range of colours, textures and scents. The Gardens also have plenty of activities to keep visitors busy including music at the Pine Walk bandstand, an aviary, mini golf course and an art exhibition during the summer. It’s a beautiful setting to just sit and watch the world go by with a coffee or have a delicious picnic with friends and family as well as a welcome haven from the hustle and bustle of the town. During the winter there is the fantastic Christmas Tree Wonderland which features a beautiful trail of Christmas trees and seasonal activities and attracts thousands of visitors every year. There is also a large rock garden which was which was built in the 1930s.
Bournemouth

Until the beginning of the 19th century the area was mainly vegetation and marsh. Development of the land began in 1840 but it wasn’t until 1859 that the owners granted permission for the area to become a public pleasure ground. The 3 kilometres of land we know as our Upper, Central and Lower Gardens today didn’t all join as one garden until 1872.

There was a competition to design the Lower Pleasure Ground in 1871, the winner was Mr Philip Henry Tree. His design included new walks, plantations and flowerbeds. Improvements were carried out over the years but the biggest changes were in the 1920s when the Square was laid out and the pavilion was built in the Lower Gardens. Large ornamental rock gardens and small waterfalls were included along the park facing side of the pavilion. In 1922 the War Memorial was built in the Central Gardens and the rose beds were planted. The design and layout of the gardens hasn’t changed much since the 1870s. Lots of the trees and types of shrubs are still the same too.
Bournemouth: History of the Bournemouth Gardens

Chellow Dean Reservoirs, Bradford, England


Chellow Dean, Bradford
Postmarked 1952 but the same image appears on cards postmarked 1909
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

Chellow Dene, Allerton, Bradford, West Yorkshire consists of 2 reservoirs and a narrow woodland that surrounds them. The top reservoir follows the steep contours of the valley right up to the inlet stream. It gradually deepens down to the dam wall with a depth of 20+ feet. The main species are roach, bream, carp, perch, tench, chub, orfe, bullhead and pike. On the lower reservoir you may see Mallards, Canada Geese, Tufted ducks, Moorhens and Coots.
Discover Bradford

The population of the town [of Bradford] had by this time increased to something like 100,000, and mills, workshops, new streets, and public buildings had grown up on every side. In 1842 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the formation of a company to provide Bradford with water. The supply was obtained from an abundant spring at Manywells, in the Hewenden valley. Two storage reservoirs were formed at Chellow Dean, and the town was supplied from a service reser- voir at Whetley Hill. lt became necessary, however, a few years later, to increase the water supply, and in 1854 the necessary Act was obtained and the Corporation bought the works of the company for .£215,000, and proceeded to carry out a fresh scheme of great magnitude.
Post Office Bradford Directory 1887-8, p. 9 (pdf)

The streams running through Heaton are five in number, namely Bradford Beck, Carr Syke Beck, Red Beck, Chellow Dean Beck, and Sandy Lane Beck. Chellow Dean Reservoirs, dividing Heaton from Allerton, collect the waters from the Manywells Spring at Hewenden, and were acquired by the Bradford Corporation from the original private waterworks company. Together with the surrounding woods, the reservoir grounds form an attractive and popular resort during the summer months.
Manningham, Heaton, and Allerton : (townships of Bradford) treated historically and topographically“, 1896, p. 175


The Mercury, 13 June 1913

This week marks the centenary of the death of suffragette Emily Wilding Davison after a collision with the King’s horse at the Epsom Derby. The first week of June 1913 also saw an event in Bradford attributed to suffragette activity with an interesting link to the dyeing industry.
The Fabric of Bradford

Berry Head, Brixham, England


Brixham Berry Head
c.1910
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co

Google Street View.

Berry Head is a coastal headland that forms the southern boundary of Tor Bay in Devon, England. Lying to the east of the town of Brixham, it is a national nature reserve[1] and a local nature reserve
Wikipedia.

The headland towers 200 feet above the English Channel protecting what was an important naval anchorage during the Napoleonic War. There are two garrisoned forts (dating back to 1795) that were built to protect Brixham Harbour from the perceived threat of French Invasion. Limestone was quarried here from 1780 until the 1970s. In the latter years, limestone from Berry Head was used to produce steel for the manufacture of Ford cars at Dagenham.
Torbay Coast & Countryside Trust

St. Mary’s Abbey, York, England


St. Mary’s Abbey, York.
c.1910
Publisher: Sampson, York

Google Street View.

Postcard for St Olave’s Church

The original church on the site was founded in 1055 and dedicated to Saint Olaf. After the Norman Conquest the church came into the possession of the Anglo-Breton magnate Alan Rufus who granted the lands to Abbot Stephen and a group of monks from Whitby. The abbey church was refounded in 1088 when the King, William Rufus, visited York in January or February of that year and gave the monks additional lands. The following year he laid the foundation stone of the new Norman church and the site was rededicated to the Virgin Mary. The foundation ceremony was attended by bishop Odo of Bayeux and Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux. The monks moved to York from a site at Lastingham in Ryedale in the 1080s and are recorded there in Domesday. Following a dispute and riot in 1132, a party of reform-minded monks left to establish the Cistercian monastery of Fountains Abbey. In 1137 the abbey was badly damaged by a great fire. The surviving ruins date from a rebuilding programme begun in 1271 and finished by 1294.
Wikipedia.

The abbey estate occupied the entire site of the Museum Gardens and the abbot was one of the most powerful clergymen of his day, on a par with the Archbishop of York. In medieval York, the abbey sat opposite and mirrored the Minster: two great buildings dedicated to worship. The monks would spend their days working in abbey administration, copying books, trading with merchants, providing food and supplies for the monastery, managing the abbey’s estates and helping the poor.

Visitors can see the remains of the walls of the nave and crossing of the abbey church, where the monks prayed and sang, and the cloister, where the monks washed their clothes, contemplated and were allowed to speak. . . . King Henry VIII banned all monasteries in England in 1530s. The monks at St Mary’s were pensioned off in 1540 and the abbey buildings were converted into a palace for the King when he visited York. Gradually they fell into ruins and were used as agricultural buildings before being excavated by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society in the 1820s.
York Museums Trust

Multangular Tower, York


Multangular Tower, Abbey Gardens, York
c.1910
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

The Multangular Tower is the best example of standing Roman remains in York. It is on the northern side of the gardens, between the Yorkshire Museum and St Leonard’s Hospital. You can see the tower and fine stretches of the fortress wall from both sides, inside and out. The tower stood at the west corner of the legionary fortress. It was one of the two corner-towers of the huge stone wall that looked down onto the river. The small stones in the lower half are Roman whereas the upper half was reconstructed in the medieval period. The original Roman parts of the tower probably date from the early third century. Archaeologists can tell that the stone walls replaced timber fortress structures: an immense undertaking. The Romans used several types of stone in their buildings including limestone, tough millstone grit and elland stone, now better known as York stone, which was used for floors and roofs as it splits naturally into flat slabs. But it was not so much the stone but the use of mortar to hold it together that was the real Roman revolution. This allowed for the creation of far larger buildings than ever seen before.

The fortress wall was built 5m (c.15 ft) high. At the west corner stood what we now know as the Multangular Tower, which may have been well over 10m (c.30 ft) high. A matching tower stood at the fortress’s south corner, with six interval towers in between, projecting from the wall. These corner and interval towers were a military innovation, as they enabled soldiers to fire along the sides of the wall as invaders tried to scale them. In practice, the Roman occupiers probably never expected an attack on Eboracum. The fortress was mainly a base from which to control the region.

We know very little about the medieval rebuilding and reuse of the tower but the fortifications were significant during York’s role in the English Civil War and damage from a cannon ball can be seen in the wall to the North of the tower.
York Museums Trust

Guildhall, Totnes, England


Guild Hall, Totnes
c.1910
Publisher: W. Denis Moss

Photos on Google Maps

The current building was originally part of Totnes Priory, which had been established by Juhel de Totnes, feudal baron of Totnes. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII in the 1540s, his successor, King Edward VI, granted Totnes a charter, in 1553, allowing one of the former priory buildings, which had been used as the monks’ refectory, to be converted into a guildhall. Part of the first floor of the building was converted for use as a magistrates’ court in 1624. Soldiers were billeted in the building during the English Civil War: the council chamber at the west end of the first floor hosted a meeting between Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fairfax at the oak tables there in 1646. The lower hall was used as a public meeting room as evidenced by the names of over 600 town mayors, who have served since 1359, listed on its walls. After prison cells had been built in the basement, the building was also used as the town gaol until 1887. The building was extended to the east by the addition of a loggia in front of the original building in 1897: the extension was designed with Doric order columns which had been recovered from the Exchange which had been demolished in 1878.
Wikipedia.

Circa 1553, reconstructed in 1624 (wall tablet)and extensively altered in 1829. On the site of the Benedictine Priory of St Mary founded by Judhael in 1086. After the Dissolution in 1536 the greater part of the priory church of St Mary was adapted for use as the parish church (qv), and the convential buildings, on the north side, were granted to Walter Smythe and, in 1553, to the Town Council who incorporated them in the new Guildhall buildings. The Courtroom appears to be on the site of the monastic refectory and retains some of the original window openings.
Historic England

Cross, Eyam, England


Saxon Cross in Eyam Churchyard
Publisher: Francis Frith

Google Street View.

In the churchyard is an Anglo-Saxon cross in Mercian style dated to the 8th century, moved there from its original location beside a moorland cart track. Grade I listed and a Scheduled Ancient Monument, it is covered in complex carvings and is almost complete, but for a missing section of the shaft.
Wikipedia.

At the south side of St Lawrence’s parish church at Eyam in the Peak District, Derbyshire, there is a beautifully sculptured 8 foot-high Saxon cross which is said to date from either the 8th Century or the 10th? It is also known as a Mercian Cross. Some of the design-work on the shaft and head bears some similarity to Celtic design. In the 8th Century Christian missionaries (from the north) set up the cross at Crosslow to the west of Eyam. The cross-shaft was originally a couple of feet taller than it is at present but, despite that, it is one of the best-preserved of all the Mercian crosses in the Midlands.
The Journal of Antiquities

Netley Abbey, Netley, England


Southampton – Netley Abbey
Publisher: J. Baker. The Camp Stores, Hazeley Down, Winchester

Google Street View.

Netley Abbey is a ruined late medieval monastery in the village of Netley near Southampton in Hampshire, England. The abbey was founded in 1239 as a house for monks of the austere Cistercian order. Despite royal patronage, Netley was never rich, produced no influential scholars nor churchmen, and its nearly 300-year history was quiet. The monks were best known to their neighbours for the generous hospitality they offered to travellers on land and sea. In 1536, Netley Abbey was seized by Henry VIII of England during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the buildings granted to William Paulet, a wealthy Tudor politician, who converted them into a mansion. The abbey was used as a country house until the beginning of the eighteenth century, after which it was abandoned and partially demolished for building materials.
Wikipedia

Sir William Paulet’s mansion was occupied until 1704, when the owner sold it for building materials. The abbey was only saved when a demolition worker was killed, causing work to cease. When this house was abandoned, however, and the neglected site became overgrown with trees and ivy, it came to be celebrated as a romantic ruin. As the ‘Romantic Movement’ grew in strength, many authors and artists visited the abbey to find inspiration. Set among the wild, wooded slopes above Southampton Water, overgrown Netley appeared to be the perfect medieval ruin. John Constable came to paint here, and writers such as Thomas Gray enthused about the abbey.
English Heritage

Chatsworth House, England


The Painted Hall, Chatsworth House.
1900s
Publisher: A.P. Co (Artistic Publishing Co?), 9 Bury Court, Mary Axe, London

Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England, in the Derbyshire Dales, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north-east of Bakewell and 9 miles (14 km) west of Chesterfield. The seat of the Duke of Devonshire, it has been home to the Cavendish family since 1549, standing on the east bank of the River Derwent, across from low hills between the Derwent and Wye valleys. The house is set in expansive parkland backed by wooded, rocky hills that rise to heather moorland.

The 4th Earl of Devonshire, who would become the 1st Duke in 1694 for helping to put William of Orange on the English throne, was an advanced Whig and forced to retire to Chatsworth during the reign of King James II. This called for a rebuilding of the house, which began in 1687. Cavendish aimed initially to reconstruct only the south wing with the State Apartments and so decided to retain the Elizabethan courtyard plan, although its layout was becoming increasingly unfashionable. He enjoyed building and reconstructed the East Front, which included the Painted Hall and Long Gallery, followed by the West Front from 1699 to 1702. The North Front was completed in 1707 just before he died.

Wikipedia.

In 1549, at the behest of his wife, Bess of Hardwick, Sir William Cavendish bought the land from the Leche family (relations of Bess’s) for £600. Recent
work for the Chatsworth Master Plan (2005-2018) has uncovered possible traces of this earlier Tudor house in the Baroque building’s northern cellars. William and Bess started construction of their house in 1552, but William did not live to see its completion, as he died in 1557. Although Bess of Hardwick completed the building work, the house was entailed to the eldest son from her marriage to William Cavendish, “my bad son Henry” and she made Hardwick her primary residence in 1590. Henry sold the house to his younger brother William (who became the 1st Earl of Devonshire in 1618). The Elizabethan house was successively rebuilt by the 1st, 4th and 6th Dukes, obtaining its current form with the 6th Duke’s major additions and alterations as designed by Sir Jeffry Wyatville, which were implemented c.1820-1841.

Timeline of the Cavendish amily and some of their major properties” (PDF)


Chatsworth House–Great Hall
c.1910
Publisher: Thomas Taylor & Son
“From Photographs taken by special permission of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire.”

First impressions count. When guests are welcomed to Chatsworth, this is one of the first rooms they see. William, 1st Duke of Devonshire built the Painted Hall between 1689 and 1694, the only original feature is the painted decoration on the walls and ceiling. Whilst still Earl of Devonshire he chose to flatter the monarch by decorating the hall with scenes from the life of Julius Caesar, he was elevated to Duke in the year the room was completed.
Chatsworth House: room cards (PDF)

Read more

Well House Donkeys, Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight


The donkey in the wheel, Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight
c. 1910
Publisher: T. Piper, Carisbrooke.

Google Street View.

British Pathe: Carisbrooke Castle Donkeys, film 1963

English Heritage: Plan of castle

The well house at Carisbrooke was once the main supply of water for the castle. Built in the 1580s, a huge oak wheel would be turned to draw a bucket down to the water and back up again. For one bucket, the wheel must be turned 255m, a job that is thought to have originally been performed by prisoners. Since at least 1696 however, it is known that this role was performed by a team of donkeys,
English Heritage: Meet the Carisbrooke Donkeys


The Well House, Carisbrooke Castle
1900s
Publisher: Frederick Hartmann (1902-1909)