Norwich Cathedral is an English cathedral located in Norwich, Norfolk, dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity. It is the cathedral church for the Church of England Diocese of Norwich and is one of the Norwich 12 heritage sites.
The cathedral was begun in 1096 and constructed out of flint and mortar and faced with a cream-coloured Caen limestone. An Anglo-Saxon settlement and two churches were demolished to make room for the buildings. The cathedral was completed in 1145 with the Norman tower still seen today topped with a wooden spire covered with lead. Several episodes of damage necessitated rebuilding of the east end and spire but since the final erection of the stone spire in 1480 there have been few fundamental alterations to the fabric.
From Bell’s Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Norwich, C.H.B. Quennell, 1898:
Norwich Cathedral stands on the site of no earlier church: it is to-day, in its plan and the general bulk of its detail, as characteristically Norman as when left finished by the hand of Eborard, the second bishop of Norwich.
The church was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first bishop, as the cathedral priory of the Benedictine monastery in Norwich (a sketch of its constitution at this period will be found in the Notes on the Diocese); the foundation-stone was laid in 1096 on a piece of land called Cowholme,—meaning a pasture surrounded by water,—and the church was dedicated to the Holy Trinity.
The foundation-stone of the cathedral was laid in 1096; and upon it, according to the Registrum Primum, the following inscription is said to have been placed:—”In nomine patris et filii et spiritus Sancti Amen Ego Herbertus Episcopus apposui istum lapidem.” (In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, Amen, I, Herbert the Bishop, have placed this stone.)
It was the custom of the Norman builders to start building from the easternmost part of the church, as the more sacred part of the structure, and then build westwards; so that probably this foundation-stone, for which diligent search has been made in vain, was in the eastmost wall of the original Norman Lady Chapel—in fact, the Registrum Primum describes how Herbert began the work “where is now the chapel of the Blessed Mary.” This chapel was demolished to make way for the beautiful thirteenth-century Lady Chapel which Dean Gardiner destroyed. The thirteenth-century builders of the Lady Chapel may have used Herbert’s foundation-stone in their walling; Dean Lefroy quite lately, while repairing parts of the tower and east end, came across pieces of stone with beautiful “dog-tooth” ornament upon them, which had been used to repair the masonry that, it was evident, at one time had formed part of the thirteenth-century Lady Chapel. This must be so, since in no other part of the building save the arches now remaining in the extreme eastern wall of the procession path, which at one time gave access to the Lady Chapel, does such ornament occur.
It is probable, and the more generally accredited supposition, that Herbert built the presbytery with its encircling procession path and the original trefoil of Norman chapel radiating therefrom;—the choir and transepts with the two chapels projecting eastwards and the first two bays of the nave. Harrod advances a theory that he completely finished the whole of the cathedral church, as well as the offices for the housing of the sixty monks who were placed therein, in 1101. He also built the episcopal palace on the north side of the cathedral, of which some parts remain to this day incorporated with work of a later period; he seems to have founded and built other churches in Norwich and Yarmouth. He died on the 22nd of July 1119, in the twenty-ninth year of his episcopate, and was buried before the high altar in his own cathedral church.
The Cité de Carcassonne is a fortified medieval city within the French city of Carcassonne. There are two sets of walls enclosing the Cité. The inner one which dominates the picture here, and the outer outer one that you can see parts of on the left. The walls were originally built in the Roman era, and part of that remains , but for the most part they date from the 13th century. The Château is a 12th century count’s castle. You can see its square towerstowards the back as you follow the wall.
This photo below shows the fortified city with its walls on a hill within the larger city. (The towers with orange tiles on the roof are the Gallo-Roman towers.)
“Cité de Carcassonne” from Wikipedia
As you might imagine from the building of walls and castle, Carcassonne was the site of much fighting at times:
After the Romans arrived in Gaul the settlement fell under their jurisdiction as an important Roman outpost or Colonia known as Carcasum. For centuries, Carcasum enjoyed a relatively peaceful and prosperous existence until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. In 453, after months of fighting the Romans finally lost Carcassonne to the Visigothic king Theodoric II, who subsequently fought-off attacks from the Franks in 508. However, in 725 the Saracens took Carcassonne from the Visigoths, who were driven out of Western Europe in the 8th century. Saracen control of Carcassonne was relatively short lived, however, as the French King Pépin le Bref recaptured the city in 760.
Cellar Tours (it had the best summary).
Then there’s a few centuries of realtive peace.
In August 1209 the crusading army of the Papal Legate, Abbot Arnaud Amalric, forced its citizens to surrender. Viscount Raymond-Roger de Trencavel was imprisoned whilst negotiating his city’s surrender and died in mysterious circumstances three months later in his own dungeon. The people of Carcassonne were allowed to leave – in effect, expelled from their city with nothing more than the shirt on their backs. Simon De Montfort was appointed the new viscount. He added to the fortifications.
In 1240, Trencavel’s son tried to reconquer his old domain, but in vain. The city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247. Carcassonne became a border fortress between France and the Crown of Aragon under the Treaty of Corbeil (1258). King Louis IX founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the Hundred Years’ War, Edward the Black Prince failed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town.
Then some more centuries of peace. The walls collapsed. Then in the mid-19th century the government decided the walls had to go. A campaign was launched and in 1853 a large, long project commenced to restore the city structurally and enhanced its Medieval-aspects. It also involved destroying an adjoining structures that didn’t fit the vision, throwing people out of their homes and roofing the towers in a material and style copied from the north of France.
The Wall City of Carcassonne is an interesting website about the history of the city, the restoration and the people who lived there (there’s a link to the English version near the top of the page).
Château et Remparts de la Cité de Carcassonne (Centre des Monuments Nationaux) is aimed at visitors but it has a nice self-guided tour brochure that details the
Not dated. C.1950
Message on back:
Norman Castle built between 1153-1189 of Caen stone brought from Normandy during the reign of King Henry II who was responsible for the murder of Thomas A’Beckett 1170.
All bedchambers, chapel & ante rooms are in the walls which are from 16′ to 21′ in width.
Even had water laid in every room, sanitation, and heating throughout when built. Wonderful fortress, never without a garrison of soldiers, who have even(?) living quarters attached.