Palace of Versailles: Gardens

Palace postcards
Grand Trianon postcards


Versailles. – Ensemble du Château. Parterre d’Eau, un Dimanche de Grandes Eaux
c.1910

Situated above the Latona Fountain is the terrace of the château, known as the Parterre d’Eau. Forming a transitional element from the château to the gardens below and placed on the north-south axis of the gardens, the Parterre d’Eau provided a setting in which the imagery and symbolism of the decors of the grands appartements synthesized with the iconography of the gardens. In 1664, Louis XIV commissioned a series of statues intended to decorate the water feature of the Parterre d’Eau. The Grande Commande, as the commission is known, comprised twenty-four statues of the classic quaternities and four additional statues depicting abductions from the classic past.
Wikipedia

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Palace of Versailles: Grand Trianon

Palace postcards
Garden postcards


Versailles. – Palais du Grand Trianon

Street view.
Floor plan 1714-5

The Grand Trianon was erected by Jules Hardouin-Mansart in 1687 on the site of the former ‘Porcelain Trianon’. Commissioned by Louis XIV in 1670 to get away from the arduous pomp of life in the court and to pursue his affair with Madame de Montespan, the Grand Trianon is perhaps the most refined architectural ensemble found on the royal estate of Versailles.
Website.

The Grand Trianon is a château (palace) situated in the northwestern part of the Domain of Versailles. It was built at the request of King Louis XIV of France (r. 1643–1715), as a retreat for himself and his maîtresse en titre of the time, the Marquise de Montespan (1640–1707), and as a place where he and invited guests could take light meals (collations) away from the strict étiquette of the Court.
Wikipedia.

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Palace of Fontainebleau, France


Palais de FONTAINEBLEAU – Cour des Adieux.

Google Street View.

Official Website
Media Center for Art History (panorama views of rooms)
17th century plan

Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing in the heart of the vast forest of the Ile-de-France in the Seine-et-Marne region, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by King François I, who wanted to make it a “new Rome”. Surrounded by an immense park, the palace, to which notable Italian artists contributed, combines Renaissance and French artistic traditions. The need to expand and decorate this immense palace created the conditions for the survival of a true artistic centre.

The construction of the palace began in 1528. The modifications undertaken later by François I’s successors and carried out on different scales until the 19th century have left their imprint on the physionomy of the present complex, which today comprises five courtyards placed in an irregular manner and surrounded by an ensemble of buildings and gardens.
UNESCO World Heritage listing


FONTAINEBLEAU — Le Palais. Perspective du Chateau et de l’Etang
Published Levy & Neurdein Reunis, 1920s

Google Street View.

PALAIS DE FONTAINEBLEAU
Pavillon Louis XV – Entrée du Musée Chinois et l’Étang aux Carpes
Louis XV Pavilion – Entrance to the Chinese Museum and the carps pond.
Published by Musées Nationaux

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Stock Exchange, Copenhagen


København — Børsen

On back:
Alex Vincent’s Kunsuorlag, Eneberettiget, No. 14

Postmarked 1911

Google Street View

From
The Old Stock Exchange dates back to 1625 and is one of the oldest buildings in Copenhagen. King Christian IV had realized the importance of increased trade and commerce, and so he had this grand building erected. At the time of its inauguration, the building had room for at least 40 market stalls. The Old Stock Exchange was then surrounded by water from three sides, so ships could unload their cargo directly at the wharf in front.

Roof turned to canon balls during war

The Old Stock Exchange was built in Dutch Renaissance style. King Christian IV had originally covered the roof with lead, but during the Swedish occupation of Copenhagen 1658-59, much of this lead was removed to produce cannon balls, and the holes in the roof were only partly covered with tin and tile. Not until the end of the 19th century was the building roofed with copper.

The four intertwined dragon tails of the dragon spire are topped by three crowns, symbolizing the Scandinavian empire (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden).

From Børsbygningen:
Børsen is one of the old buildings in Copenhagen and like Rosenborg Slot and Rundetårn, it is one of the buildings of which we remember King Christian IV. The building is built in Dutch renaissance style but is characterized by the King’s taste, like the garrets on the roof and the spire.

In 1618 Christian IV asked the engineer Johan Semb to construct a new part of town, Christianshavn, and a dam was made facing Amager on top of which, the first “Amagerbro” (today known as Knippelsbro) was built. Christian IV had realized the importance of trade and business and decided to make Copenhagen the great trade centre and grand city of the future. However, you cannot have a grand city without an exchange and in 1618 the King asked Lorenz van Steenwinckel to start building Børsen, where the dam facing Christianshavn is connected with land on Slotsholmen.
..
Børsen as a market place In the late 16th twenties, Børsen was taken into use by renting out booths for merchants. From the street you could enter the ground floor and visit 40 booths. The whole of Børsen’s first floor contained only one big room with rented booths in the centre and along the windows.
(More information and photos of rooms.)

Wikipedia

Pallazzo Pitti/Pitti Palace, Florence


Firenze – Palazzo Pitti

Google Street View (location)

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Arno, a short distance from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions. In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919.

Wikipedia

The palace, which houses several important museums, was built in the second half of the 15th century probably on a project of Filippo Brunelleschi for Luca Pitti, but was unfinished at his death in 1472. The original building, formed by two floors and the ground floors, with only five windows on each tloor, was purchased in 1550 by Eleonora da Toledo, the wife of the Grand Duke Cosimo I de’Medici, thus becoming the official residence of the family. For this reason it was widened and changed, in 1560 by Bartolomeo Ammannati and at the beginning of the 17th century by Giulio and Alfonso Parigi.
Museums of Florence

Purchased in 1550, the Palace was chosen by Cosimo I de’ Medici and his wife Eleanor of Toledo as the new Grand Ducal residence, and it soon became the new symbol of the Medici’s power over Tuscany. It was also the royal palace of other two dynasties: the House of Lorraine-Habsburg (which succeeded the Medici from 1737) and the Kings of Italy of the House of Savoy, who inhabited it from 1865. Nonetheless the palace still bears the name of its first owner, the Florentine banker Luca Pitti that in the mid-1400s started its construction – maybe after a design by Brunelleschi – at the foot of the Boboli hill beyond the Arno river.
Uffizi Galleries

Red Fort, Delhi


Scale of Justice, Fort Delhi 
Caption: Interior Scale of Justice Fort Delhi. A marvel of whithe[?] marble with colouring of an unrivalled beauty.
Larger version

Red Fort constructed 1639-48 for Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan.

“The Red fort contains all the paraphernalia of the Mughal dynasty including the halls of public and private audience (‘Diwan-i-Am’ and ‘Diwan-i-Khas’), domed and arched marble palaces, plush private apartments, a mosque (Moti Masjid) and richly designed gardens. While the emperor would hear complaints of his subjects at the ‘Diwan-i-Am’, he held private meetings at the ‘Diwan-i-Khas’. The fort also houses the Royal Bath or the ‘Hammam’, the ‘Shahi Burj’ (Shah Jahan’s private working area) and the famous Pearl Mosque, built by Aurangzeb. In the ‘Rang Mahal’ or the Palace of Colors, lived the Emperor’s wives and mistresses.” (From Cultural India.)

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