Ossuary, Bazeilles, France


BAZEIILES La Crypt-ou <<Ossuaire>>
Se compose de deux de séries de galleries paralleles se faisant face, séparées par un couloir central
Les galleries de droite sont occupées par les Françcais, celles de gauche par les Allemande.
(It consists of two galleries facing each other, separated by a central corridor
The galleries on the right are occupied by the French, those on the left by the Germans.)

Publisher: Suzaine-Pierson, Sedan

Street view (closest view)

Built in 1878 by the State on grounds that it had itself purchased from various parishes and individuals, the Necropolis and Ossuary was completed in 1890. It contains the remains of about 3,000 French and German soldiers.
Nécropole et Ossuaire de Bazeilles

For Germany, it was perhaps the Prussian Wars of Liberation that had the greatest effect upon relationships between soldiers, the army, and the nation.[9] In consequence, it was not republican France but imperial Germany that pushed for a comprehensive project to bury every officer and soldier who had died in the Franco-Prussian War. Article 16 of the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871 set the tone and established the framework for this new development, stating that, ‘The French and German governments reciprocally agree to respect and maintain the tombs of soldiers buried on their respective territories.’ Since most of the dead lay on French soil, the article can be interpreted as having been primarily motivated by concerns for the safety of German graves after the army withdrew from occupation. . . . French obligations under Article 16 of the Treaty of Frankfurt were laid out in the law on military tombs of 4 April 1873. . . . In cases where large numbers of soldiers were interred, the state undertook to construct a vault or ossuary and to erect a funerary monument.
Remembering the Franco-Prussian War Dead: Setting Precedents for the First World War

In the devastated village of Bazeilles, however, the ossuary containing the remains of all those who had died in the battle, including civillians, was designed to produce the opposite effect. Visitors could enter and view for themselves the skeletons of over two thousand victims separated into two piles according to nationality. The resulting effects was devastatingly stark and horrifit. Those who recorded their impressionsdescribed their revulsion at seeing clothing still shrouding some of the bones, a good still in its shoes and fingers still wearing wedding rings.
“Unmentionable Memories of the Franco-Prussian War”, Karine Varley, 2008 in “Defeat and Memory: Cultural Histories of Military Defeat in the Modern Era”, p. 71

You descend into the partially underground crypt, and enter a central hallway. On the left, the German side, you will find several crypts containing grave monuments and memorials. These were erected and built during the German occupation of 1914-1918. When the Germans occupied this part of France in 1914 they were absolutely horrified to discover what the French had done with the remains of these soldiers of 1870. The bodies were not buried but lay stacked, haphazardly, inside the vaults. With their well-known Teutonic thoroughness, the Germans buried their soldiers in the crypt and sealed off the graves with concrete. Fortunately they left the French cellars untouched.

On the right, the French side, the situation is presumably largely as when the human remains were originally placed here. When you look into the crypts from behind the glass, on the left and right of a narrow `path’ you see heaps of body parts mixed together. Because of the climatic conditions here, some body parts are partly mummified. Many of the remains still have fragments of skin attached to them; sometimes a whole arm, including the fingers, are clearly visible. Bones protrude from soldiers’ boots, there are carcasses still with shreds of uniform on them; if you look carefully — much helped by the use of a torch — you can see the horrors of war in a quite extraordinary way, although the effect had been toned down over the passage of time, the remains collecting dust for the past 150 years.
“The Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871: Touring the Sedan Campaign”, Maarten Otte, 2020, pp. 146

Niagara Falls, Canada & USA


General View of Falls from Canadian Side, Niagara Falls.
1920s

On back:
Niagara Falls is between Lakes Erie and Ontario, distant about twenty miles from Buffalo. Niagara River has a total fall of three hundred and thirty feet, in the thirty-six miles of its course as follows: The smaller Rapids above the Falls, fifteen feet; the principal waterfall, one hundred and sixty feet; the large Rapids below, fifty-five feet, and from the Falls to Lewiston, through the gorge, one hundred feet. The summer time clothes the margins of the the Falls with beautiful verdure, and it is then that they are visited by the largest number of tourists, drawn to this wonder spot from all countries of the world.


Horseshoe Falls from Goat Island by Illumination, Niagara Falls
c.1925

On back:
This new beauty of Niagara differs from the beauty that the Creator made working through inanimate life. For here He worked through the inventive genius of man, and gave Niagara a new glory that can be turned on and off at the mere pressing of a switch-button, throwing on the billion candle power batter of electric searchlight which floodlights the Falls, the batteries being hidden in the foliage work invisibly and in no way mare the scenery with the imprint of man’s hand. Nor does the conquest end here, for the searchlights of Niagara when sent upward into the sky may be seen for seventy five miles away.

Read moreNiagara Falls, Canada & USA

Niagara Falls, US & Canada


American Falls from Goat Island Niagara Falls
1900s
Souvenir Post card Co., New York & Berlin (1905-1915)

Known in the past as the premiere Honeymoon destination, this geological wonder is not only one of most popular tourist attractions in the state of New York, but also functions as one of the major power providers to the state itself. Comprised of three waterfalls — American Falls, Horseshoe Falls and Bridal Veil Falls — Niagara Falls water stems from the upper Great Lakes and the river is estimated to be 12,000 years old. The wonder of the falls has intrigued many and has prompted daredevils to “conquer” the falls in various contraptions from wooden barrels to rubber balls.

Niagara Falls consists of two waterfalls on the Niagara River, which marks the border between New York and Ontario, Canada: the American Falls, located on the American side of the border, and the Canadian or Horseshoe Falls located on the Canadian side. To the right of the American Falls is a smaller waterfall that has been separated from the American Falls by natural forces, which is usually called Bridal Veil Falls.
History.com


American Falls, view from Canadian Side, Niagara Falls, N.Y
Postmarked 1907
Publisher: Illustrated Post Card (1904-1914)

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Sugarloaf Mountain from Powerscourt Estate, Co. Wicklow, Ireland


Sugarloaf Mountain from Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow
Postmarked 1914
Publisher: E. Lynch, Bray

Google Street View

The beautiful Italian Garden truly offers the best in garden landscaping and design. The garden was designed to create a view that was part of the wider landscape and the result is a magnificent vista in every season. The exquisite series of terraces linking the house to the lake were constructed between 1843 and 1867 and were quite a feat to complete! Up to 100 labourers were employed in the work which took 12 years to complete. The design of the upper stone terrace nearest the house was influenced by Villa Butera in Sicily and the steep streets of Genoa and other Italian towns.
Powerscourt Estate

Yumuri Valley, Cuba


Yumuri Valley – Valle del Yumuri, Matanzas, Cuba
1900s
Pubishers: The Rotograph Company, New York (1904-1911)

The motorist who with more time at his disposal turns his face to the east will find that he has chosen a richly rewarding journey. He enters Matanzas through the famous Yumuri Valley generally regarded by Cubans as the loveliest spot on the island. It is roughly oval in form bounded on three sides by low hills and is watered by the Yumuri River which flows gently through it to the sea.
Bulletin of the Pan American Union (1931)

The Yumurí is a river in Cuba, which drains into Bahia de Matanzas, an arm of the Straits of Florida in the historic provincial capital of Matanzas. The river begins in the village of Imias and winds its way through 54.2 kilometres (33.7 mi), including a steep 220 metres (720 ft) canyon with walls 200 metres (660 ft) high. The Yumurí valley is claimed to be one of the island’s most scenic, noted for the biodiversity of its flora and fauna, as well as a variety of archaeological sites. The valley, actually drained by the Yumuri and Bacunayagua rivers, is surrounded by a 150 m high mountain ridge. These elevations provide many vantage points to view the valley. One important site is the Monserrat Hermitage, known for its view of Matanzas. According to local legend (in the Spanish Wikipedia entry), the valley’s and river’s name derives from the death cry (in Spanish) of a native princess.
Wikipedia

Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome


ROMA Tempio di Vesta
1920a

Google Street View

Media Center for Art History (images & panoramas but not a lot of variation)

The Temple of Vesta is the popular name given to the round temple near the Tiber River in Rome (now Piazza Bocca della Veritá). The association with Vesta is due to the shape of the building but in fact it is not known to which god the temple was dedicated. It may have been dedicated to Hercules Olivarius, patron of the Portus Tiberinus oil merchants, as three or four temples to the Greek hero are known to have stood in the area of the Forum Boarium where there was also a Great Altar to Hercules. The temple is Greek in style and was probably the work of an eastern Greek architect. The building also uses that quintessential Greek building material, Pentelic marble, from near Athens. At the time of construction Pentelic marble was one of the more expensive building materials and so was rarely used for large projects. The columns, entablature and cella walls were constructed with this marble whilst the inner cella wall was lined with tufa and stucco.
Ancient History Encyclopedia

The Temple of Hercules Victor (‘Hercules the Winner’) or Hercules Olivarius is a Roman temple in Piazza Bocca della Verità, in the area of the Forum Boarium close to the Tiber in Rome, Italy. It is a tholos – a round temple of Greek ‘peripteral’ design completely encircled by a colonnade. This layout caused it to be mistaken for a temple of Vesta until it was correctly identified by Napoleon’s Prefect of Rome, Camille de Tournon. Despite (or perhaps due to) the Forum Boarium’s role as the cattle-market for ancient Rome, the Temple of Hercules is the subject of a folk belief claiming that neither flies nor dogs will enter the holy place. The temple is the earliest surviving marble building in Rome. The Hercules Temple of Victor is also the only surviving sacred temple in ancient Rome that is made of greek marble.Today it remains unsolved who this temple was dedicated for and for what purpose.
Wikipedia

With a history of continuous occupation stretching back over 2,000 years, the Temple of Hercules represents a palimpsest of architectural layers and uses. The temple is the only surviving ancient sacred structure in Rome that is made of Greek marble. It is composed of Pentelic marble that is originating in the quarries of Mount Pentelikon in the plain of Attica. The temple’s famed columns are slender that exhibit no swelling or entasis, instead extending directly upwards giving the structure a lofty appearance.
Chronology of Architecture

Double Bridge, Tokyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo


Handwritten on back:
Empire palace & “Nijyubashi”, Double bridge

Google Street View

Edo Castle also had two bridges here, but the names were different. The stone bridge was a wooden bridge called 西之丸大手橋 nishi no maru ōtebashi “front bridge to the western compound” and the iron bridge was also a wooden bridge called 西之丸下乗橋 nishi no maru kejōbashi “dismount bridge to the western compound.” Nijubashi was actually the nickname of the kejōbashi (now the iron bridge), not the ōtebashi (now the stone bridge). The bridge was built in 1614 by the shōgun, Tokugawa Hidetada. The bridge had a secondary wooden support mechanism built underneath which made it a 2 level construction. Because of these two levels, it looked like there were two bridges. The nickname 二重橋 nijūbashi/futaebashi came to be used as it was quite a distinctive bridge.

When the imperial court moved into the castle in 1868 but the bridges remained. After the confiscation and destruction of the daimyō residences in Daimyō Alley and elsewhere, the old bridge and gate system was re-evaluated. The two bridges were chosen as the main entrances to Tokyo Castle (the Imperial Palace). The kejōbashi was torn down and replaced with an iron bridge in 1888. It was rebuilt again in 1964 to match the 新宮殿 Shin Kyūden the New Palace, which is the collection of shitty 60’s-looking buildings that litter the palace grounds.
Nijubashi – Tokyo’s Most Famous Bridge

Gorges of Rhumel, Constantine, Algeria


CONSTANTINE. – Gorges du Rhummel. – Les Voutes Naturelles.
1910s
Publisher: Levy Sons & Co. (1895-1919)

Google Street View (general location)

Constantine – a city not so much built as draped, clinging to ravines and peaks that soar above the river Rhumel (Malek Haddad, Algerian poet born in 1927 in Constantine). Once known as Cirta, the capital of the Kingdom of Numidia more than 2000 years ago, the city was given its current name in 313AD by Emperor Constantine the Great. While it was at the crossroads of civilisation for centuries, it remains an unknown city to many. Constantine is renowned for its topography – a mountainous setting rising 649m above sea level. Over millennia the Oued Rhumel (Rhumel River) has carved deep ravines and gorges through the landscape, leaving rocky outcrops on which the city is built and creating a natural fortress that was easy to defend. Bridges connect the peaks and outcrops, creating spectacular vistas where the buildings seem to merge with the cliffs.
ASA Cultural Tours