Bronx Park, New York


Entrance to Bronx Park, New York City
On the back:
Bronx Park lies on both sides of the Bronx River between Williamsbridge and West Farms. It comprises a total area of 662 acres, 250 of which have been given to a botanical garden and 261 to a zoological park. Both institutions are corporations managed by trustees and occupying their sites by arrangements with the city.
c. 1920
Publisher: The American Art Publishing Co, New York City, (1918-1925)

This might be the entrance to the zoo rather than the park.

Google Street View (approximate location).

Wikipedia.

Inspiration for Bronx Park came during a widespread movement to create public parks throughout the city in the 1880s. In 1881, John Mullaly (1835-1915), a former newspaper reporter and editor, and a group of citizens concerned with widespread urban growth, formed the New York Park Association. The group’s lobbying efforts helped the passage of the New Parks Act in 1884, which funded the acquisition of several major undeveloped lands for the purpose of creating parks and parkways. By 1890, the city had acquired properties in the Bronx that would eventually become known as Van Cortlandt, Pelham Bay, Bronx, Crotona, and Claremont Park, as well as four parkways. John Mullaly Park, an 18-acre parkland in the Highbridge section of the Bronx, was dedicated to the park activist in 1932.

In 1891, 250 acres of this site were allotted to the New York Botanical Society. The New York Botanical Garden was modeled after the Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew, England, and has become one of the most distinguished gardens in the world. The garden houses living collections of temperate and tropical plants from all over the world as well as a huge collection of preserved plant specimens. It is also home to a 40-acre “virgin” forest, one of the last such preserves in the city.

The City of New York allotted another 250 acres to the New York Zoological Society in 1898 to build a park to preserve native animals and promote zoology. The Bronx Zoo opened in 1899 and is the largest urban zoo in the United States housing over 8,000 animals representing more than 800 species. In 1906, the city acquired another 66 acres on the southeastern end of this property. This area currently houses Ranaqua, NYC Parks’ Bronx headquarters.
NYC Parks

Rockefeller Fountain

Tea House, Valley Gardens, Harrogate, England


The Tea House, Valley Gardens Harrogate.
Postmarked 1910
Publisher: Woolstone Brothers, London (1902-1933)

Google Street View.

Valley Gardens was developed as an attractive walk for visitors to the Spa town, part of their health regime between taking the waters, and as a means of access to the mineral springs of Bogs Field. The waterside walk with flowers and trees became a place for promenading, socialising and taking exercise. Photographs of the gardens in the early 20th century testify to their enormous popularity with crowds around the tea room, boating lake and bandstand. The Sun Pavilion and Colonnades were built as an added attraction and facility for the spa, intended as the first phase of a covered way linking the Pump Room and Royal Bath Hospital. Visitors to the mineral springs declined but the horticultural reputation of the Gardens grew with the staging of the Northern Horticultural Society’s Spring Flower Show in the Gardens and the addition of special garden areas. . . . A rustic thatched teahouse with veranda was erected on the slopes of the former Collins Field overlooking a bandstand sited near the new Magnesia Well pump room. . . . Plans were drawn up to redevelop the Pump Room at the entrance to Valley Gardens, create a covered colonnade following the north boundary beside Cornwall Road to a Sun Pavilion and develop a further link to the Royal Bath Hospital. The proposals involved the acquisition of the remaining privately owned properties at the entrance to the gardens and the replacement of the teahouse with the Sun Pavilion. The work was to be carried out in three phases, the first phase being the construction of the Sun Pavilion, colonnades and two sun parlours. Despite considerable opposition, notably by Duchy residents, the first phase was opened in June 1933.
Friends of Valley Gardens

Vivary Park, Taunton, England


Taunton, Vivary Park, “Feeding swans”
Postmarked 1907
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co, Reigate

Google Street View (approximate, stream is in the other direction)

The public park came about because it’s so close to the centre of the town. The land had been used as for public events since at least 1851 when the first Taunton Flower Show was held there. It was sold to the council in 1894 and a year later it was laid out. The front gates, bandstand and one shelter date from this time. In 1902 an oak tree was planted close to the bandstand to mark the coronation of Edward VII. With money left over from the celebrations, the fountain was commissioned as a memorial to the late Queen Victoria. It was unveiled in 1907. The park originally formed a part of the open setting to Wilton house. The park was extended to include part of the garden of Wilton House in 1924. Vivary Park is a good surviving example of a late Victorian public park.
Somerset West and Taunton Council

The park stands on land that was formerly a medieval fish farm, or vivarium, for Taunton Priory and Taunton Castle. Although nothing remains above ground of these lakes, they are the origin of the name Vivary. . . . Long before the park was publicly owned, it was known as Vivary Park and was used for some public events. It was lent by William Kinglake to provide the site of the West of England Show of 1852. He was also sympathetic to the Bristol and Somerset Total Abstinence Association and allowed the park to be used for its Public Tea Meeting and Demonstration on 17 August 1852. The first exhibition of the Vale of Taunton Deane Horticultural and Floricultural Society was held in the park on 21 and 22 June, 1855, and in 1883 a ten-day ‘Temperance mission’ was held in the park, at which “as many as 1,500 new pledges” of abstinence from alcohol were made. . . . Two decades [after 1875, Vivary Park was still owned by the Kinglake family, but in 1894 they sold it to the Municipal Borough of Taunton for £3,659 (equal to around £230,000 in 2010), to encourage healthier lifestyles and to provide recreational opportunity for the urban working class, as set out in the Public Health Act of 1875.

The arrangement of the park is still very much as was when first laid out in 1895. It is entered through a pair of cast iron gates, dating from 1895, made by the Saracen Foundry of Glasgow, who also made the Queen Victoria Memorial Fountain of 1907. Since 2000 the fountain has been restored, with funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund, and the park was re-opened by Queen Elizabeth II in May 2002. The bandstand also dates from 1895, while two huge oak trees were planted in 1902 to mark the coronation of King Edward VII. Just within the main gates, the war memorial was erected in 1922.
Wikipedia.

Mitchell Park Zoo, Durban, South Africa


Mitchell Park Zoo, Durban
c.1910
Publisher: A. Rittenburg, Durban

Named after Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell, the park was established in the early half of the century as an ostrich farm. That venture did not go as well as planned, so it was transformed into a zoo instead. Back then, a large variety of animals, including lions, leopards, crocodiles and many varieties of bird, occupied a large part of the zoo. The remainder consisted of beautifully landscaped gardens.
Mitchell Park Zoo

Arboretum, Nottingham, England


Arboretum, Nottingham
Publisher: Stewart & Woolf, London

This might be the aviary, opposite the lake.

The park was designed as a botanical collection, in the “natural order”, and as a tranquil place in which to relax, forming a major attraction in the heart of Victorian Nottingham. From 1852 it was open free of charge on Sunday, Monday and Wednesday, but was 6d admission (equivalent to £2.74 in 2019)[5] on other days, or £1 (equivalent to £109.46 in 2019)[5] for a yearly permit.
Wikipedia.

The Enclosure Act of 1845 enclosed fields and meadows used by the burgesses or freeholders of the City of Nottingham to graze their animals. To compensate for the loss of the open space used for recreation, the Act allotted space for a series of places of public recreation and public walks. Some 130 acres (c 54ha) made up of Queen’s Walk and Queen’s Walk Park (Meadow Cricket Ground), Victoria Park, Robin Hood Chase, Corporation Oaks, St Ann’s Hill Avenue, Nottingham Arboretum, the General Cemetery, Waterloo Promenade, the Church Cemetery, and the Forest were created as public open spaces from the enclosures. Under the Enclosure Act, 17 acres (c 7ha) was allocated as public open space for Nottingham Arboretum. The Arboretum was designed by Samuel Curtis (1779-1860), the nurseryman and botanical publisher, and laid out by Nottingham Town Council between 1850 and 1852. It opened to the public in 1852 and was the first public park to open in Nottingham.
Parks & Gardens

Following the Nottingham Inclosure Act of 1845 – a visionary project to create a green network around the growing city, to provide green spaces for relaxation, contemplation, learning, exercise and clean air – the Arboretum was the first public park opened in Nottingham. The layout and design was carried out under the supervision of Samuel Curtis, a botanist and horticultural publicist in 1850 who had previously been involved with the layout of Victoria Park in the East End of London in 1842.

The main aim of the design for Arboretum was to take advantage of the landscape setting whilst providing an interlinking network of walkways and socialising areas. As a result over 1010 specimen trees and shrubs were planted along with winding paths and sweeping lawns. The plantings were laid out in what is known as ‘The Natural Order’ to provide an educational link to nature through botanical interpretation. Some of the mature trees and shrubs growing here are living relics of the original collection such as the Lime Trees which were planted as nursery trees. There are currently over 800 trees of 65 species. The layout of the park is relatively unchanged and as a result the Arboretum is Grade II listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens maintained by English Heritage and contains 9 Grade II Listed structures within its layout, providing a key asset to Nottingham’s Victorian Heritage.
Nottingham City Council

Horticultural Hall, Audubon Park, New Orleans


Horticultural Hall, Audubon Park, New Orleands, LA
1907-1911
Published: The Rotograph Co, New York (In operation, 1904-11)

The nascent park accommodated a World’s Fair soon thereafter, the World Cotton Centennial of 1884. After the closing of the fair, the park’s development began in earnest. Most of the fair’s buildings were demolished, with the exception of Horticultural Hall – which remained in the park until destroyed in the 1915 New Orleans hurricane.
Wikipedia.

Street view, approximate location (hall stood between the end of the Alley of Oaks and the bandstand)

Leas Shelter, Folkestone, England


View from the Leas Shelter, Folkestone
Postmarked: 1916
Publisher: Photochrom Co. Ltd.

Google Street View (approximate).

In 1784, a landslip created a new strip of land between the beach and the cliffside, the length of the coast from Folkestone Harbour to Sandgate. A ribbon of land a few meters wide. In 1828, the Earl of Radnor built a toll road providing an easy route between Folkestone harbour and Sandgate. The original toll road costs were – motor car 10p, motorcycle with sidecar 2 and 1/2 p, motorcycle 2p, bicycle, horse and handcart 1/2 p. The original toll house (designed by the architect Sydney Smirke) remains within the park On either side of the toll road, land was cultivated and grazed. Old field boundaries are still used within the park, and the ‘Cow Path’ is the old drove route from The Leas.

In 1877, a series of paths was constructed. The Ordnance Survey map of 1898 (of the area) shows some of these paths, Including a path from the Leas Shelter on the Upper Leas leading down to the road. The Leas Lift opened in 1885, to improve access between the seafront and the upper Leas (of Folkestone). The park and seafront with their new pier, switchback ride (an early form of roller coaster – railway along the promenade), and beach amusements proved to be so popular, that a second lift was added in 1890. The remains of a further lift serving the ‘Metropole Hotel’ (now a block of apartments) can still be seen (on the Upper Leas), and yet another lift connected the western end of the Leas with Sandgate. In 1913, the area then known as Leas Cliff was leased by the Radnor Estate to the local corporation, to be used mainly for a park, but the estate still kept the tolls from the toll road. In the park, tea rooms, shelters and woodland walks were provided among the newly planted holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and pine trees so that people could “take the air”.
Wikipedia

Zoological Park, Cleres, France


On back:
Parc Zoologique de Clères (Seine Inf.)
Façade Nord du Château et Antilopes

(North face of the Chateau & antelopes)
c.1930
Publisher: Parc Zoologique de Clères

Cleres Zoological Park was established in 1919 in the grounds of Medieval/Rennaisance chateau.

Google Maps.
Official website (in French)


On back:
Parc Zoologique de Clères (Seine Inf.)
Nandous blancs

(White rheas)
Publisher: Parc Zoologique de Clères

Statue of Dom Pedro I, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


ESTATUA D PEDRO I
(Statue of Dom Pedro the First)
c.1910
Published: A. Ribeiro, Rua Ambrosina 25 Aldeia Campista, Rio De Janeiro

Street View

This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in bronze, representing Brazil’s four major rivers. The sculpture was designed by Joao Maximiniano Mafra, a painter and professor at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, and cast in France. The statue is located in Tiradentes Square, also known as Constitution Square.
World Digital Library entry

Parc Monceau, Paris


Parc Monceau
Postmarked 1908

Google Street View.

The Hector Berlioz Website (more old views of park)

When France’s royal family want an absurdist Anglo-Chinese garden filled with an architectural pastiche from around the globe, who dares say no? Parc Monceau was built in 1778 at the request of King Louis XVI’s cousin – the Duke of Chartres, Phillippe d’’Orléans – who dreamt of opening a park that would amaze and surprise all who passed through its gates by foregrounding his eclectic taste in landscape design and architecture. What resulted was a monumental act of public folly, albeit one that possessed a tender charm all its own.

Constructed with a distinct lack of care for either the epoch or people from which he was borrowing, Parc Monceau originally contained a Roman colonnade, a miniature Egyptian pyramid, a Tartar tent, a Dutch windmill, a water lily pond, an enchanted grotto, a temple of Mars, an Italian vineyard and numerous antique statues, all within arms’ reach of each other. At the time of its debut, the garden also featured servants in flamboyant dress and exotic animals like camels. Taken as a whole, none of it it made much sense, but that had never really been the Duke’s point; unlike the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale which was built to mimic foreign cultures for spectatorship, Parc Monceau was built as pure fantasy.
Atlas Obscura.

Parc Monceau had its beginning in 1769 when Louis Philippe, the duke of Chartres, who was also the cousin of Louis XVI and the father of King Louis-Philippe I and who would later become the Duc d’Orléans and be known as Philippe-Egalité, purchased a hectare of land on Boulevard de Courcelles. At this time he had architect Louis-Marie Colignon build a pavillion in the middle of a French-styled garden. During 1773-1778, he acquired twelve more surrounding hectares. He built on this property, with the designing help of painter Carmontelle, a windmill, a minaret, a pyramid, a Chinese pagoda, a Roman temple, a waterfall and the “Naumachie” which is a pond half-encircled by broken Corinthian columns. . . In 1793, the now Duc d’Orléans bought more of the surrounding properties and landscape architect Thomas Blaikie transformed the garden with trees and lawns into an English-styled garden. This was one of the first landscaped parks in Paris and it become a place of festivities.
Paris Walking Tours

After the monarchy was restored, the park was returned to the family of the Duke. During the Second Empire, the family sold lots within the park to real estate developers, who built luxurious town houses, reducing the size of the park by half. The remaining part of the park was purchased by the city of Paris in 1860. All that remained of the original folly was the water lily pond, the stream and the fantasy “tombs”, including the Egyptian pyramid.

In 1860, the park was purchased by the city, and in August 1861 Parc Monceau became the first new public park in Paris to be created by Baron Haussmann as part of the grand transformation of Paris begun by Emperor Louis Napoleon. Two main alleys were laid out from east to west and north to south, meeting in the center of the park, and the alleys within the park were widened and paved, so carriages could drive the park. An ornamental gate 8.3 m (27 ft) high was installed along a newly created avenue, boulevard Malesherbes, curving paths were laid out around the park for strolling. The pavillon de Chartres was also modified by the architect, Gabriel Davioud, who had a graceful classical dome added to the structure. He also built a bridge modeled after the Rialto bridge in Venice over the stream to replace the Chinese bridge by Carmontelle that had once been there. He preserved the other follies remaining from the original garden. Haussmann embellished the park with a rich collection of exotic trees and flowers from around the world.

The park is unusual in France due to its “English” style: its informal layout, curved walkways and randomly placed statues distinguish it from the more traditional, French-style garden. It includes a collection of scaled-down architectural features, or follies — including an Egyptian pyramid, a Chinese fort, a Dutch windmill, and Corinthian pillars. A number of these are masonic references, reflecting the fact that Philippe d’Orléans was a leading freemason. Parc Monceau includes statues of famous French figures including Guy de Maupassant, Frédéric Chopin, Charles Gounod, Ambroise Thomas, Alfred de Musset, and Edouard Pailleron.
Wikipedia.