Hagia Sophia, Istanbul


Constantinople — Intérieur St. Sophie
c.1920
(Bottom is cut off on card.)

Google Street View & 360o

360o views

ONCE A CHURCH, LATER A MOSQUE.
Masterpiece Of The History Of Architecture
The Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque/Ayasofya-i Kebir Cami-i Şerifi, with its innovative architecture, rich history, religious significance and extraordinary characteristics has been fighting against time for centuries, is the largest Eastern Roman Church in Istanbul. Constructed three times in the same location, it is the world’s oldest and fastest-completed cathedral. With its breathtaking domes that look like hanging in the air, monolithic marble columns and unparalleled mosaics, is one of the wonders of world’s architecture history.

It continued to exist as a mosque during the Ottoman Period
Today’s Hagia Sophia is the third building constructed in the same place with a different architectural understanding than its predecessors. By the order of Emperor Justinianos, it was built by Anthemios from Tralles (Aydin) and Isidoros from Miletos (Balat). The construction started in 532 and was completed in a period of five years and opened for worship in 537 with great ceremony. When Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror conquered the city, he converted it into his imperial mosque. It continued its existence with the addition of Ottoman architectural elements and turned into a museum in 1935. Known for its Imperial Gate, Beautiful Gate (Splendid Door) and Marble Gate, Hagia Sophia has 104 columns, some of which are brought from ancient cities. The “Omphalion” section where the emperors were crowned stands out with marble workmanship like these pillars.
Muze Istanbul

Hagia Sophia, officially the Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque and formerly the Church of Hagia Sophia, is a Late Antique place of worship in Istanbul. Built in 537 as the patriarchal cathedral of the imperial capital of Constantinople, it was the largest Christian church of the eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) and the Eastern Orthodox Church, except during the Latin Empire from 1204 to 1261, when it became the city’s Roman Catholic cathedral. In 1453, after the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire, it was converted into a mosque. In 1935 the secular Turkish Republic established it as a museum. In 2020, it re-opened as a mosque.

Built by the eastern Roman emperor Justinian I as the Christian cathedral of Constantinople for the state church of the Roman Empire between 532 and 537, the church was then the world’s largest interior space and among the first to employ a fully pendentive dome. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture”. The building was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.[6] The present Justinianic building was the third church of the same name to occupy the site, the prior one having been destroyed in the Nika riots. Being the episcopal see of the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, it remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.
Wikipedia.

Hassan Pasha Mosque, Oran, Algeria


ORAN – Intérieur de la Mosquée
c.1910

Courtyard and ablutions fountain.

Archnet: images including plan of prayer hall

Possible location?

The Hassan Pasha Mosque, also referred to as the Pasha Mosque or the Grand Mosque, is a mosque located in Oran, Algeria. It was built in 1796 by order of Baba Hassan, Pasha of Algiers, in memory of the expulsion of the Spanish. During the French Invasion of Algiers in 1830, French soldiers would occupy the mosque during their invasion of Algeria as their living-quarters. 5 years after the French Invasion, in 1835, the building was established as a mosque and renovated three decades later. In 1952, the mosque was listed as a historic monument.
Wikipedia.

Mosque of Sultan Hassan, Cairo


Cairo – Mosque of Sultan Hassan

Published: Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo


Le Caire — Intérieur de la Mosquée Sultan Hassan
Cairo — Interior of the Mosque of Sultan Hassan
Published: Vegnios & Zachos

Google Maps.

Floor plan (Wikipedia Commons)

360 Cities (360o view of interior)

The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is a monumental mosque and madrassa located in the historic district of Cairo, Egypt. It was built between 1356 and 1363 during the Bahri Mamluk period, commissioned by Sultan an-Nasir Hasan. The mosque was considered remarkable for its massive size and innovative architectural components, and is still considered one of the most impressive historic monuments in Cairo today.

The mosque’s construction is considered all the more remarkable as it coincided with the devastation wrought by the Black Plague, which struck Cairo repeatedly from the mid-14th century onwards. Its construction began in 1356 CE (757 AH) and work proceeded for three years “without even a single day of idleness”. In fact, work appears to have continued even up to 1363, even after Sultan Hasan’s death, before eventually ceasing. An inscription on the mosque notes the name of amir Muhammad ibn Biylik al-Muhsini as the supervisor of the construction of the mosque. Unusually, his name was placed near Sultan Hasan’s in the inscription, which demonstrates how important the undertaking of the project must have been.
Wikipedia

The Complex of Sultan Hasan was built between 1356 and 1363, and included a madrasa, congregational mosque, and mausoleum. The free-standing complex, which had a monumental domed mausoleum flanked by minarets, only one of which survives, is located in a prominent position below the Citadel, toward which the monumental portal is oriented. The muqarnas-hood portal occupies the entire length of the façade. The height of the exterior walls and the arrangement of the windows give the facades a strongly vertical emphasis.
Archnet

Built between 1356 and 1363 by the Mamluk ruler Sultan Hassan, the scale of the mosque is so colossal that it nearly emptied the vast Mamluk Treasury. Historians believe that the builders of this mosque may have used stone from the pyramids at Giza. Early in construction, some design flaws in the colossal plans became apparent. There was going to be a minaret at each corner, but this was abandoned after the one directly above the entrance collapsed, killing 300 people. Another minaret toppled in 1659, then the weakened dome collapsed. The early history witnessed by the mosque was as unstable as its architecture: Hassan was assassinated in 1391, two years before completion, and the roof was used as an artillery platform during coups against sultans Barquq (1391) and Tumanbey (1517).
Sacred Destinations.

Jama Masjid & Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri , India

Master Page: Fatehpur Sikri


Fathapur Sikri, Interior of the Mosque
Publisher: D. Macropolo

360 Cities: Jama Masjid, Looking out Towards Salim Chisti Tomb (panorama)

The Jami’ Masjid of Fatehpur Sikri is the sacred complex of the fortified imperial city built by Akbar between 1571-85. A congregational mosque organized around a large courtyard, it was the largest mosque in India at the time of its construction. Its completion, according to an inscription, can be dated to 1571. The mosque complex, as well as the palace complex, contains similarities to earlier structures in Gujarat and Jaunpur. This may be attributed to Akbar’s conquests in Gujarat and Jaunpur, which were contemporary with his Fatehpur Sikri building projects.
ArchNet

The Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque) is a 17th-century mosque in the World Heritage Site of Fatehpur Sikri in India. The Mughal emperor Akbar personally directed the building of the Jāmiʿ Masjid (Great Mosque; 1571), which stretches some 540 feet (165 metres) in length. . . . The rectangular mosque comprises a central nave with a single dome, two colonnaded halls on either side, with two square chambers crowned with domes. Carved mihrabs adorn the main chamber and the two smaller rooms.

The mosque marks the phase of transition in Islamic art, as indigenous architectural elements were blended with Persian elements. The pillared dalan of the facade, the liwan with three arched openings framed by panels and crowned by five chhatris and the central mihrab adorned with an inlaid mosaic of stones that are bordered by glazed tiles, and golden inscriptions on a royal blue background is a tribute to this fusion. The interiors of the liwan are adorned with watercolour paintings depicting stylized floral designs. The dado panels, spandrels of arch and soffits are painted profusely. Unlike other monuments, where domes are supported on squinches, here corbelled pendentives support the dome. The Buland Darwaza and the Tomb of Salim Chishti are also a part of the mosque complex.
Wikipedia.

Sikri was the first planned city of the Mughals. In accordance with the sloping ridge, terraces on receding levels were made for the three main complexes; The mosque complex at the highest level, comprised of the Jama Masjid, Buland Darwazah and tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti; the royal complex, on the lower level comprised of the rainwas (Harem), Mahal-I-Ilahi, Shahi-Bazar, Mina-Bazar, Baithak and a garden and the public complex, at the lowest level comprised of the Panch Mahal,Khwabgah, Shahi Kurub-Khanan, Anup Talao, the hall of the unitary pillar, chaupar and diwan-I-Am.
Fatehpur Sikri: Fortified Ghost City of Mughal Empire


The Buland Darwaza of Fatehpore Sikri, Agra
c.1910
Published: K. Lall & Co., Agra

Set into the south wall of congregational mosque, the Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri is 55 metres (180 ft) high, from the ground, gradually making a transition to a human scale in the inside. The gate was added around five years after the completion of the mosque c. 1576-1577 as a victory arch, to commemorate Akbar’s successful Gujarat campaign. It carries two inscriptions in the archway, one of which reads: “Isa, Son of Mariam said: The world is a bridge, pass over it, but build no houses on it. He who hopes for an hour may hope for eternity. The world endures but an hour. Spend it in prayer, for the rest is unseen”.
The central portico comprises three arched entrances, with the largest one, in the centre, is known locally as the Horseshoe Gate, after the custom of nailing horseshoes to its large wooden doors for luck

Wikipedia.

Buland Darwaza or the loft gateway at Fatehpur Sikri was built by the great Mughal emperor, Akbar in 1601. Akbar built the Buland Darwaza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. The Buland Darwaza, approached by 42 steps and 53.63m high and 35 meters wide, is the highest gateway in the world and an astounding example of the Mughal architecture. It is made of red and buff sandstone, and decorated by carving and inlaying of white and black marble. An inscription on the central face of the Buland Darwaza throws light on Akbar’s religious tolerance and broad mindedness.
Cultural India

Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, Spain


Córdoba — La Mezquita. Laberinto de columnas.
The Mosque-Cathedral. Labyrinth of columns.
Published Agustin Fragero, Cordoba


Córdoba — La Mezquita. Una de las naves.
The Mosque-Cathedral. One of the naves.
Published Agustin Fragero, Cordoba

Google Maps (overhead view)
Google Maps, an internal view.

Cordoba’s period of greatest glory began in the 8th century after the Moorish conquest, when some 300 mosques and innumerable palaces and public buildings were built to rival the splendours of Constantinople, Damascus and Baghdad. In the 13th century, under Ferdinand III, the Saint, Cordoba’s Great Mosque was turned into a cathedral and new defensive structures, particularly the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos and the Torre Fortaleza de la Calahorra, were erected.

Founded by the Romans in the 2nd century BC near the pre-existing Tartesic Corduba, capital of Baetica, Cordoba acquired great importance during the period of Augustus. It became the capital of the emirate depending on Damascus in the 8th century. In 929, Abderraman III established it as the headquarters of the independent Caliphate. Cordoba’s period of greatest glory began in the 8th century after the Moorish conquest, when some 300 mosques and innumerable palaces and public buildings were built to rival the splendors of Constantinople, Damascus and Baghdad. In the 13th century, under Ferdinand III, Cordoba’s Great Mosque was turned into a cathedral and new defensive structures, particularly the Alcazar de los Reyes Cristianos and the Torre Foraleza de la Calahorra, were erected.
From UNESCO Word Heritage Listing.

The building itself was expanded over two hundred years. It is comprised of a large hypostyle prayer hall (hypostyle means, filled with columns), a courtyard with a fountain in the middle, an orange grove, a covered walkway circling the courtyard, and a minaret (a tower used to call the faithful to prayer) that is now encased in a squared, tapered bell tower. The expansive prayer hall seems magnified by its repeated geometry. It is built with recycled ancient Roman columns from which sprout a striking combination of two-tiered, symmetrical arches, formed of stone and red brick.
Khan Academy

Official Website

Sacred Destinations.
Islamic Arts and Architecture
Wikipedia.

Mosque of Mohamed Ali, Cairo


The Alabaster Mosk Mohamed Aly
Published: Lichtenstern & Harari 1902-1912

Street View

Virtual Tour

Wikipedia.

The mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha is one of the most renowned historical and touristic landmarks in Egypt. The design for this mosque was derived from the Mosque of Sultan Ahmad in Istanbul (built AH 1025/AD 1616). Construction of the mosque began in AH 1246/AD 1830 and work continued on it, without interruption, until the death of Muhammad Ali Pasha in AH 1265/AD 1848. He was buried in a tomb that he had prepared for himself within the mosque in the southwestern corner. Construction of the walls, domes and minaret had been completed by the time of Ali Pasha’s death, and when ‘Abbas Pasha I assumed power (r. AH 1265–70/AD 1848–54), he ordered the completion of work on the marble, carvings and the gilding, and added a marble construction and a copper maqsura for Ali Pasha’s mausoleum.
Museum With No Frontiers: Discover Islamic Art

The mosque of Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha was built between 1828 and 1848. Perched on the summit of the citadel, this Ottoman mosque, the largest to be built in the first half of the 19th c., is, with its animated silhouette and twin minarets, the most visible mosque in Cairo. It is built on the site of Mamluk palaces destroyed at the behest of the patron, an act reminiscent of that of Saladin who wiped out all traces of Fatimid power by dismantling their palaces, and it also superseded the adjacent Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad as the new state mosque. This first independent ruler of Egypt chose to build his state mosque entirely in the architectural style of his former overlords, the Ottomans, unlike the Mamluks who, despite their political submission to the Ottomans, tenaciously stuck to the architectural styles of the two Mamluk dynasties.
ArchNet


On back:
No. 418 Cairo: Interior of the Mosque of Mohammed Ali, built in 1830-1848. It is richly decorated and its walls are encrusted with alabaster from the quarries of Beni Suef.
Published: Eastern Publishing Company, Cairo


CAIRO – Mohamed Ali Mosque
c.1910
Published Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo

Read more