Kitchen, Grande Chartreuse Monastery, France


Intérieur du Convent de la Grande-Chartreuse. – La Cuisine (état actuel)
c.1920

Google Maps.

Musee de Grande Chartreuse (other rooms)

Grande Chartreuse is the head monastery of the Carthusian religious order. It is located in the Chartreuse Mountains, north of the city of Grenoble, in the commune of Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse (Isère), France. Originally, the château belonged to the See of Grenoble. In 1084, Saint Hugh gave it to hermit Saint Bruno and his followers who founded the Carthusian Order. The recipe of the alcoholic beverage Chartreuse is said to have been given to the monks of Grande Chartreuse in 1605[1] by the French Marshal François Annibal d’Estrées. For over a century, the monks worked on perfecting the 130-ingredient recipe. In 1764, the monks expanded their distillery for the first time to meet the demand of their popular Elixir Végétal de la Grande Chartreuse. The distillery has then been moved several times in more remote areas because it represents a major explosion hazard for the surrounding habitations.

The château went through many severe casualties, reconstructions and renovations. The building standing today (2020) was erected in 1688. In 1789, following the French Revolution, the monks were expelled from the monastery, and waited until 1838 to be reauthorized on the premises. Following the establishment of the Association Law of 1901 and its interpretation that effectively banned religious associations en masse, many notable religious institutions across France, including Grand Chartreuse, were closed by the French government.
Wikipedia.

Fort Church, Willemstad, Curacao


Willemstead, Curacao “Fort” Church
Neth. W. Indies

Google Street View.

The present-day Fortchurch in historic Fort Amsterdam is the oldest church still in daily use on Curacao. Construction took place between 1767 and 1771 and the facade bears the date 1769. It is known that the construction cost 5,500 pesos (approximately 11,000 guilders), but nothing is known of the architect (although both Hendrik de Hamer and Frederik Staal were closely involved in the work). The vicarage stood next to the church on the spot that is currently the seat of the Government.

The Fortchurch is not large, (20.5 X 13.25 m), but is particularly high, with the tallest point of the tower reaching 16 meters above ground level. Given the small area of space available within the Fort, careful planning had to be done for the way it would be used. The high ceilings also doubled as an effective area in which to dry and store ship sails, which were hoisted up by pulley. The original tower of the Church was octagonal and was replaced by a round one in 1903, (which is clearly marked on the facade), designed by Mr. A.W. Statius Muller, the Head of the Building Department.
The Fortchurch

In 1804 a cannonball fired by British captain John Bligh, of HMS Theseus, hit the church. Bligh led a small squadron that captured the fort in February 1804. The ball is still embedded in the southwestern wall of the fort church
Wikipedia.

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul


Constantinople — Intérieur St. Sophie
c.1920
(Bottom is cut off on card.)

Google Street View & 360o

360o views

ONCE A CHURCH, LATER A MOSQUE.
Masterpiece Of The History Of Architecture
The Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque/Ayasofya-i Kebir Cami-i Şerifi, with its innovative architecture, rich history, religious significance and extraordinary characteristics has been fighting against time for centuries, is the largest Eastern Roman Church in Istanbul. Constructed three times in the same location, it is the world’s oldest and fastest-completed cathedral. With its breathtaking domes that look like hanging in the air, monolithic marble columns and unparalleled mosaics, is one of the wonders of world’s architecture history.

It continued to exist as a mosque during the Ottoman Period
Today’s Hagia Sophia is the third building constructed in the same place with a different architectural understanding than its predecessors. By the order of Emperor Justinianos, it was built by Anthemios from Tralles (Aydin) and Isidoros from Miletos (Balat). The construction started in 532 and was completed in a period of five years and opened for worship in 537 with great ceremony. When Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror conquered the city, he converted it into his imperial mosque. It continued its existence with the addition of Ottoman architectural elements and turned into a museum in 1935. Known for its Imperial Gate, Beautiful Gate (Splendid Door) and Marble Gate, Hagia Sophia has 104 columns, some of which are brought from ancient cities. The “Omphalion” section where the emperors were crowned stands out with marble workmanship like these pillars.
Muze Istanbul

Hagia Sophia, officially the Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque and formerly the Church of Hagia Sophia, is a Late Antique place of worship in Istanbul. Built in 537 as the patriarchal cathedral of the imperial capital of Constantinople, it was the largest Christian church of the eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) and the Eastern Orthodox Church, except during the Latin Empire from 1204 to 1261, when it became the city’s Roman Catholic cathedral. In 1453, after the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire, it was converted into a mosque. In 1935 the secular Turkish Republic established it as a museum. In 2020, it re-opened as a mosque.

Built by the eastern Roman emperor Justinian I as the Christian cathedral of Constantinople for the state church of the Roman Empire between 532 and 537, the church was then the world’s largest interior space and among the first to employ a fully pendentive dome. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture”. The building was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.[6] The present Justinianic building was the third church of the same name to occupy the site, the prior one having been destroyed in the Nika riots. Being the episcopal see of the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, it remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.
Wikipedia.

Asokaramaya Temple, Colombo, Sri Lanka


Interior View of the Asoka Ramaya Temple, Bambalapitiya, Ceylon
Publishers: Plâté Ltd, Colombo, (1890+)

Google Maps.

A 100+ year old temple in Colombo. It is known for it spectacular murals of early 20th century Buddhist art which has distinctive
western influences.

Wikimapia

Ashokaramaya Buddhist Temple in Kirulapone is one of the most unassuming temples you will come across in Sri Lanka. Not to be confused with the Ashokaramaya in Kalutara; this Colombo temple is an entirely different world of color and stories. The exterior in contrast is rather dull and normal looking; and as a result this temple is not very well known. However, recently with its paintings being redone; the temple has had an increase in the level of fame.
Lakpura Tours

Personal history, Asokaramaya Buddhist Temple Colombo Sri Lanka

Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, England


Glastonbury Abbey – Judges Ltd
Publisher: Judges Ltd

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Glastonbury Abbey: Archaeological Investigations 1904–79 (online book)

The abbey holds a special place in English identity and popular culture. In the middle ages it was reputed to be the burial place of the legendary King Arthur and his queen Guinevere, and was regarded as the site of the earliest church in Britain, thought to have been founded by Joseph of Arimathea. According to the Gospels, Joseph was the man who had donated his own tomb for the body of Christ following the crucifixion.
Glastonbury Abbey Archaeology

“The First Christian Church in Britain.”

The abbey was founded in the 7th century and enlarged in the 10th. It was destroyed by a major fire in 1184, but subsequently rebuilt and by the 14th century was one of the richest and most powerful monasteries in England. The abbey controlled large tracts of the surrounding land and was instrumental in major drainage projects on the Somerset Levels. The abbey was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII of England. The last abbot, Richard Whiting (Whyting), was hanged, drawn and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor in 1539.
Wikipedia

When the monastic buildings were destroyed in the fire of 1184, the medieval monks needed to find a new place to worship. There is evidence that the 12th century nave was renovated and used for this purpose for almost 30 years, until some of the work was completed on the new church. The monks reconsecrated the Great Church and began services there on Christmas Day, 1213, most likely before it was entirely completed.
Glastonbury Abbey


Choir & Site of High Altar, Glastonbury Abbey
c.1920
Same publisher as “Abbot’s Kitchen” card at bottom

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Thuburbo Majus, Tunisia


Thuburbo Majus – Le Capitole
c.1930
Publiser: E.M.Cliche

Google Street View.

Archnet (images)
Rome in the Footsteps of an XVIIIth Century Traveller
Plan of town (in Italian)
Plan of ruins
“Visual reconstruction” of forum

Thuburbo Majus or Colonia Julia Aurelia Commoda, its Roman name, was originally a Punic town, later founded as a Roman veteran colony by Augustus in 27 BC. Military veterans were sent to Thuburbo, among other sites, by Augustus to allow them to start their post-army lives with land of their own. Its strategic location and access to trade routes made it an important establishment. Ruins of the town are in the middle of the countryside with no towns in close proximity. Most of the town was built around 150–200 and restored in the 4th century after the Crisis of the Third Century. It received a Capitolium in 168. The town was a productive grower of grain, olives, and fruit.[5] Under Hadrian it was made a municipium, helping cause a growth in wealth, and Commodus made it a colony.

A 1916 excavation found a tetrastyle temple. The building was decorated with statues of Apollo, Venus, Silvanus, Bacchus, the Dioscuri, and a satyr. Three perfume vases showed dogs pursuing rabbits. In 1920 an inscription found in Thuburbo Majus written in honor of C. Vettius Sabinianus proved that several other inscriptions bearing that name were referring to the same person. Remains of the house of Bacchus and Ariadne dating back to the early 5th century were excavated in 1925.
Wikipedia.

Its Capitol – the most important temple in Roman cities – is among the best preserved in Tunisia. Its façade was made of six elegant Corinthian columns, with four of them still intact, overlooking a large staircase and the Forum.
Tunisia Tourism

Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, Ahmedabad, India


Carved Windows, Ahmedabad
c.1910

Google Street View

Early in Ahmedabad’s history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion. Sidi Saiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches.
Wikipedia

This screen was basically made so that the mosque remains fully lighted from inside at all times of the day. The size of this artistic jali is around 16 feet and is in semi circular shape. It is situated at the height of around 20 feet above the ground level. The art work on these jails is so fine that a magnifying glass is required to view its internal intricate design in detail. The design consists of the flowers arrangement in various symmetrical shapes. They are made of smooth white stones and the fine engraving is done with human hands. Sadly, there does not seem to be any information about the actual craftsman who designed the jali. But it took around six years to get each of these jalis completed. Around 45 main artists worked on it, day and night.
The Symbol of Ahmedabad

The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, is a sublime ode in stone to the extraordinary architectural legacy of the African diaspora in India. Although their forefathers were originally brought to India as slaves and maritime laborers, the descendants of these Africans rose to positions of power as military commanders in the armies of the sultans and became great patrons of art and architecture. Called Sidis (or Siddis), an appellation of Africans, or Habshis, from the Arabic-Persian word for “people from Abyssinia or Ethiopia,” one of them was Shaykh Sayyid al-Habshi Sultani, or Sidi Saiyyed, who constructed his eponymous mosque.

Built in 1573, the last year of the Gujarat Sultanate before the Mughals invaded, the mosque is one of the finest specimens of the prodigious architectural accomplishments of the Sidis in India. Situated in the heart of the 600-year-old walled city of Ahmedabad, the design of the mosque is entirely in the arcuate system of construction, involving arches, domes, squinches, and vaults. The mosque is set up like a theatre without a fourth wall, celebrated for the intricately carved filigree work on its jalis (screen windows).
Atlas Obscura

Dilwara Temples, Mount Abu, India


Temple Mount Abu
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons

Google Maps.

The Dilwara Temples or Delvada Temples are located about ​2 1⁄2 kilometres from the Mount Abu settlement, Rajasthan’s only hill station. These Jain temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastupala, Jain minister of Dholka, between the 11th and 16th centuries and are famous for their use of white marble and intricate marble carvings. They are a pilgrimage place of the Jains, and a popular general tourist attraction.

The temple complex is in the midst of a range of forested hills. There are five temples in all, each with its own unique identity. All the five temples are enclosed within a single high walled compound. The group is named after the small village of Dilwara or Delvara in which they are located. The five temples are:

Vimal Vasahi, dedicated to the first Jain Tirthankara, Shri Adinatha
Luna Vasahi, dedicated to the 22nd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Neminatha.
Pittalhar, dedicated to the first Jain Tirthankar, Shri Adinatha.
Parshvanath, dedicated to the 23rd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Parshvanatha.
Mahavir Swami, dedicated to the last Jain Tirthankara, Shri Mahaviraswami.
Wikipedia

Jain architecture is an offshoot of Hindu and Bhuddhist styles. In the intial years, many Jain temples were made adjoining the Bhuddhist temples following the Bhuddhist rock-cut architecture. Initially these temples were mainly carved out of rock faces and the use of bricks was almost negligible. However, in later years Jains started building temple cities hills based on the concept of “mountains of immortality.

Jain temples have numerous pillars having a well designed structure, forming square.
The squares thus formed create chambers, used as small chapels and contains the image of a deity.
From these pillars are richly carved brackets that emerge at about two third of their height.
The rooms of these temples have pointy domes and wherever there is dome, the pillars are omitted to create an octagonal space within.
The only variation in architecture specific to Jain temples is the frequently seen four-faced or chaumukh design.
In these four faced temples, the image of a Tirthankar faces back to back to faces four cardinal directions.
Entry into these temples are also from four doors that face the cardial directions.
Jain Temple Architecture

Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia


The Ubad Aiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsa
1930s

Google Street View.

The most beautiful mosque in Perak is situated besides the Bukit Chandan Royal Mausoleum, Kuala Kangsar. The mosque was built at the royal command of Sultan Idris Murshidul Azam Shah, the 28th Sultan Perak (1887 – 1916) to fulfil his Royal Highness’ religious vow. Perak Government then instructed Colonel Huxley from the Public Services Office in Kuala Lumpur to design the plan for the mosque. The responsibility fell to Hubbeclk, a civil architect, and the building of the mosque was the responsibility of Caulfield who was Perak chief engineer at that time. On Friday, 26 September 1913, Sultan Idris Murshidul Azam Shah, set the foundation stone for the mosque. The building activity was interrupted for a few years due to the damage to the marbles caused by two elephants belonging to Sultan Idris and Raja Chulan.
The order of the marbles from Italy was interrupted caused by the World War I. In 1917, the most beautiful mosque in Perak was officially opened by Sultan Abdul Jalil Nasaruddin Shah, who replaced Sultan Idris who passed away in 1916. The cost of building the mosque at that time was estimated at RM200,000.

Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council

The mosque was built during the reign of the 28th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Idris Murshidul Adzam Shah I Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar Teja, who commission its construction as thanksgiving for his recovery from an illness that plagued him in his later years. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on 26 September 1913. The construction of the mosque was interrupted several times, once when two elephants belonging to the sultan’s and Raja Chulan fought, ran over and damaged the Italian marble tiles. The outbreak of the first world war also affected its construction. The mosque was finally completed in late 1917 at a total cost of $24,000 or RM200,000 – a considerable sum at that time. It was officially declared open by Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamtullah Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Adzam Shah I Rahmatullah, successor to Sultan Idris who had died during its construction.
Wikipedia.

The Ubudiah Mosque was the brainchild of the 28th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Idris Murshidul’adzam Shah (1887-1916). Legend has it that following his return from England in 1911 (His Highness went to England to witness the coronation of King George V), His Highness the Sultan fell ill. He chose to stay in Port Dickson for respite. Whilst convalescing in Port Dickson, he made a vow to build a mosque in Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar, if he fully recuperated as thanksgiving. After his return to Kuala Kangsar when his health greatly improved, His Highness commanded Colonel Huxley of the Public Works Department, Kuala Lumpur, to design a mosque which he wanted to build.
Heritage Buildings of Malaysia