Pagodas, Mandalay, Myanmar


Pagodas Mandalay
c.1910

1911 Map of Mandalay

The Sandamuni Pagoda (also Sandamani, because it contains the largest iron Buddha, the “Sandamani”), or Paya, is located to the southeast of Mandalay Hill and bears a resemblance to the nearby Kuthodaw pagoda because of the large number of slender whitewashed ancillary stupas on the grounds. The pagoda complex was erected on the location of King Mindon’s provisional palace, the “Nan Myey Bon Tha.” which he used until his permanent Royal Palace was completed in the center of the Royal City (now Mandalay Fort). It was built as a memorial to King Mindon’s younger half-brother, statesman, reformer, stimulating personality and confidante, the Crown Prince Kanaung, who had helped him seize power from Pagan Min in 1853. Two of Mindon’s sons, Princes Myingun, (or Myint Kun) and Myin Kon Taing disappointed in being excluded from the succession, launched a palace revolution against their father on June 8, 1866, and assassinated Crown Prince Kanaung and three other princes: Malun, Saku and Pyinsi. The princes were buried on the grounds where they died. The royal residence was demolished the next year as the court was moved to the new Royal Palace. In 1874, King Mindon had the pagoda built near the graves of the Crown Prince and the other members of the royal family who lost their lives in the 1866 coup.
Asian Historical Architecture

Marble Arch, London


The Marble Arch, London
Postmarked 1908
“The Auto Photo Series”

Marble Arch is a 19th-century white marble-faced triumphal arch in London, England. The structure was designed by John Nash in 1827 to be the state entrance to the cour d’honneur of Buckingham Palace; it stood near the site of what is today the three-bayed, central projection of the palace containing the well-known balcony. In 1851, on the initiative of architect and urban planner Decimus Burton, a one-time pupil of John Nash, it was relocated and following the widening of Park Lane in the early 1960s to where it is now sited, incongruently isolated, on a large traffic island at the junction of Oxford Street, Park Lane and Edgware Road. . . . Nash’s three-arch design is based on that of the Arch of Constantine in Rome and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in Paris. The triumphal arch is faced with Carrara marble with embellishments of marble extracted from quarries near Seravezza. . . . Construction began in 1827, but was cut short in 1830, following the death of the spendthrift King George IV—the rising costs were unacceptable to the new king, William IV, who later tried to offload the uncompleted palace onto Parliament as a substitute for the recently destroyed Palace of Westminster. Work restarted in 1832, this time under the supervision of Edward Blore, who greatly reduced Nash’s planned attic stage and omitted its sculpture, including the statue of George IV. The arch was completed in 1833.
Wikipedia.

Street View

Memorial Well, Kanpur, India


Memorial Hall, Cawnpore

Postmarked 1911

The Massacre at Cawnpore.

The Indian Mutiny: The siege of Cawnpore (photos)

For the British, the butchering of seventy-three women and 124 children at Cawnpore in July was the single most traumatic episode of the uprisings of 1857 (figures given in David 254). When the rebels were defeated and the atrocity discovered, it provoked a dreadful and indiscriminate revenge, and continued to reverberate in the British consciousness for many years to come. The sympathy that it aroused found expression in a monument, originally raised over the well itself, displaying an angel with lowered eyes. This was guarded” by a stone screen reminiscent of church architecture – and thus of Christian civilisation in general. In this way, the monument as a whole served as a rebuke and a justification of empire as well as a memorial.
The Victorian Web: An Icon of Empire. The Angel at the Cawnpore Memorial, by Baron Marochetti (1805-1867)

Read moreMemorial Well, Kanpur, India

Statue of Dom Pedro I, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


ESTATUA D PEDRO I
(Statue of Dom Pedro the First)
c.1910
Published: A. Ribeiro, Rua Ambrosina 25 Aldeia Campista, Rio De Janeiro

Street View

This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in bronze, representing Brazil’s four major rivers. The sculpture was designed by Joao Maximiniano Mafra, a painter and professor at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, and cast in France. The statue is located in Tiradentes Square, also known as Constitution Square.
World Digital Library entry

Dungerth’s Monument, St Cleer, England


St Cleer, Near Liskeard, Dungerth’s Monument The King of Cornwall who died A.D. 875.
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co

Street View

There is another longstone in the parish of St Cleer, about two miles north of Liskeard, which bears an inscription to Doniert (Dungerth), a traditional king of Cornwall, who was drowned in 872. In fact these “menhirs,” supposed to be sepulchral monuments, are to be found scattered all over the county.
The Folk-Lore Journal Volume 5 1887 (Cornish Folklore)

These two fragments, one of which is known as King Doniert’s Stone, are the only surviving examples of 9th-century stone crosses in Cornwall. The inscription on King Doniert’s Stone, bearing the name of a Cornish king, is the only such cross to feature a character known also from documentary sources.

The early missionaries are thought to have set up wooden crosses to proclaim the victory of Christ in the places where they preached: in time these sites became sanctified, and stone crosses were erected in place of the older wooden ones. King Doniert’s Stone may be the base of one such cross and the taller broken shaft alongside it is probably another.

King Doniert’s Stone stands about 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 metres) high, and is decorated on three of its faces with interlaced ornament of a style common throughout Britain. The upper end of the stone has a deep mortice in the top to take an upper shaft or cross head. The east face bears a weathered inscription which reads Doniert rogavit pro anima (‘Doniert has asked [for this to be made] for his soul[’s sake’]). The clue to Doniert’s identity lies in a passage in the early Welsh chronicle known as the Annales Cambriae, which names a king of Dumnonia called Dumgarth (or Dwingarth). He is recorded as having drowned in the sea in about AD 875.

The southern cross-shaft fragment is taller, about 7 ft (2.1m) high, and one face has a panel of interlaced decoration. Excavations have revealed an underground rock-cut passage that starts to the south-east of the crosses and terminates in a cross-shaped chamber beneath the two stones. The relationship between the underground chamber and the crosses has yet to be explained.
English Heritage

Both stones, as we see them nowadays, are only small fragments of original stone crosses, and there can be no doubt that when first set up, these were impressive monuments. Assuming that the Doniert Stone does indeed commemorate a Cornish King, one can only speculate on its purpose, standing as it does beside a track only 12 miles from Hingston Down where in 838 the Anglo-Saxon King Edgar had defeated a combined force of Danes and Cornish, thus decisively bringing Cornwall under English control. Similarly designed cross-shafts can be seen at nearby St Neot Church and St Just in Penwith in Cornwall, as well as at Copplestone near Crediton and Exeter (in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum) in Devon. In South Wales, ‘composite’ and interlace-decorated crosses like these are found at Nevern and Carew, although whether there is any relationship between the two groups is uncertain.

In the seventeenth century local miners prospecting near the crosses broke into an underground chamber beneath the stones. Despite various theories suggesting that the chambers might represent a chapel or vault associated with the stones it seems far more likely that they relate to mining activities in the area.

The field adjacent to the one in which these two crosses originally stood is identified as “Two Cross Downs” on the 1840 Tithe Map, probably in reference to these two crosses. The name also gives a clue to their original setting. Though now within a small enclosure surrounded by farmland, the stones would once have stood on open downland
Cornwall’s Archaelogical Heritage

Wikipedia (King Doniert’s Stone)
Wikipedia (Donyarth)