Tombs of Mamluks, Cairo, Egypt


On back:
Tombs of Mamelloucs
Pubilshed by Castro Brothers, Cairo.
c. 1920

As best I can tell, this seems to be South-west of Cairo Citadel (here), whereas the “City of the Dead” is to the north-east (here). Maybe one day someone who knows something will happen along and sort it out.

The City of the Dead, or Cairo Necropolis, is an Islamic necropolis and cemetery below the Mokattam Hills in southeastern Cairo, Egypt. The people of Cairo, the Cairenes, and most Egyptians, call it el’arafa (trans. ‘the cemetery’). It is a 4 miles (6.4 km) long (north-south) dense grid of tomb and mausoleum structures, where some people live and work amongst the dead.

The Mamluk Sultanate rulers … founded a new graveyard named Sahara, because of its desert environment, outside the city at its north-eastern border. It was also a place for military parades, such as tournaments and investiture ceremonies, as well as for processions, at which sultan and nobles took part during the religious celebrations. Some built their palaces on the main road of the cemetery in order to assist the spectacles.
Wikipedia

Exploring Cairo’s City of the Dead

Who Were the Mamluks?
The Mamluks ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 until 1517, when their dynasty was extinguished by the Ottomans. But Mamluks had first appeared in the Abbasid caliphate in the ninth century and even after their overthrow by the Ottomans they continued to form an important part of Egyptian Islamic society and existed as an influential group until the 19th century. They destroyed the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer, and saved Syria, Egypt and the holy places of Islam from the Mongols. They made Cairo the dominant city of the Islamic world in the later Middle Ages, and under these apparently unlettered soldier-statesmens’ rule, craftsmanship, architecture and scholarship flourished. Yet the dynasty remains virtually unknown to many in the West.

The word Mamluk means ‘owned’ and the Mamluks were not native to Egypt but were always slave soldiers, mainly Qipchak Turks from Central Asia. In principle (though not always in practice) a Mamluk could not pass his property or title to his son, indeed sons were in theory denied the opportunity to serve in Mamluk regiments, so the group had to be constantly replenished from outside sources. The Bahri Mamluks were mainly natives of southern Russia and the Burgi comprised chiefly of Circassians from the Caucasus. As steppe people, they had more in common with the Mongols than with the peoples of Syria and Egypt among whom they lived. And they kept their garrisons distinct, not mixing with the populace in the territories.

The Mamluks, who had been taken from their families in their youth and had no ties of kin in their new homelands, were personally dependent on their master. This gave the Mamluk state, divorced as it was from its parent society, a solidity that allowed it to survive the tensions of tribalism and personal ambition, through establishment of interdependency between the lower orders and sergeants and the higher lords. And at the centre Mamluk politics were bloody and brutal. Mamluks were not supposed to be able to inherit wealth or power beyond their own generation but attempts to create lineage did occur and every succession was announced by internecine struggles. Purges of higher lords and rivals were common and sultans commonly used impalement and crucifixion to punish those suspected of acts of lèse majesté or intrigue.  
[More.]
History Today

Monumental Cemetery, Pisa


PISA – Camposanto – Esterno lato meridionale (G. Pisano)

On back:
G. Barsanti e figli – Grandi gallerie di sculture – Pisa

Google Maps.
Image from Google Street View

The history of the Monumental Cemetery began in the 12th century, when Archbishop Ubaldo Lanfranchi (1108-78) brought back shiploads of holy dirt from Golgotha (where Christ was crucified) during the Crusades.

In 1278, Giovanni di Simone (architect of the Leaning Tower) designed a marble cloister to enclose the holy ground, which became the primary cemetery for Pisa’s upper class until 1779. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the walls of the Camposanto were decorated with frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi, Spinello Aretino, Benozzo Gozzoli, Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano, and Piero di Puccio.
Sacred Destinations.

Wikipedia.

Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, Genoa


Genova – Cimitero di Staglieno
Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, Genoa

Google Maps.

From Atlas Obscura:
In 1804, Napoleon, then in charge of northern Italy, passed the Edict of Saint-Cloud. On the heels of the 1835 cholera epidemic, as churches began to move stacked bodies out of overburdened catacombs and new burials took up the remaining urban space, plans were finally made for a monumental cemetery on the outskirts of town.

Designed by the famous Genovese architect Carlo Barabino in a Neo-Classical style, the Staglieno Cemetery (Cimitero Monumentale di Staglieno) opened in 1851. A compromise between the formality of the traditional orderly camposanto layout and the newly fashionable wilderness style of boschetto irregulare, seen in Père Lachaise in Paris, the grounds included cloisters, garden paths, and a reproduction of the famous Pantheon in Rome. The new cemetery quickly became the fashionable death option, and increasingly was a showcase for world-class sculpture.

Website.

Photos of statuary on Flickr

Gettysburg National Cemetery, Pennsylvania


Unknown Dead – National Cemetery
Gettysburg, Pa.

On back:
UNKNOWN DEAD, NATIONAL CEMETERY.–One of the most pathetic sights of a trip over the Gettysburg field is the section in the National Cemetery set apart for the unknown. There are 979 that are totally unknown as to name, state or organization. Small markers of marble, as are shown to the right of the illustration, stand at each grave and are simply numbered. To the left is a section of the known dead, where substantial granite slabs serve as headstones. The handsome New York State monument is seen near the center.

c.1910

Roughly this area.

Taj Mahal


Agra. The Taj – The Grille (Interior)
Not sure on date. Mid-20th century

The extracts below are from Taj Mahal. For more information and details.

“The naturalistic decoration of the interior culminates in the central ensemble of the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan and the screen that surrounds them. It attracts all visitors today with its spectacular flowers and plants inlaid in semi-precious stones.

“The perforated marble screen (mahjar-i mushabbak) was set up in 1643 to replace the original one of enamelled gold made by the goldsmith and poet Bibadal Khan on the occasion of the second anniversary of Mumtaz Mahal’s death in 1633, which was obviously deemed too precious. It took ten years to make and cost 50,000 rupees, less than one-tenth of the cost of the gold screen. Since 1994-1995 AD it has been protected from the hands of visitors by an ungainly aluminium grille in a wooden frame.”

“Within the screen are the upper cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan – what Lahauri and Kanbo call surat-i qabr, ‘the likenesses of tombs’. As usual in imperial Mughal mausoleums, the actual burials are below, in the lower tomb chamber, under cenotaphs of similar design.”

“Each cenotaph consists of a single block of stone, shaped like a sarcophagus, set on a stepped plinth which is placed in turn on a wider platform. The cenotaph of Shah Jahan is characterized as a male tomb by the symbol of a pen case on its top. While the cenotaphs conform to an established Mughal type, no other Mughal, nor any other personage in the Islamic world, was commemorated with such exquisite decoration. The lower cenotaph of Jahangir at Lahore is the only one that comes close; it was created at the same time as that of Mumtaz, probably by the same artists. The decoration of the cenotaphs with hardstone inlay was reserved for mem bers of the Mughal imperial family.”


ताज की कवर, आगरा
Cenotaphs Inside Taj Mahal Agra

No date. Postcard is printed on very thin card, more like paper.
(Hindi is probably wrong but it’s the closest I could get to what is on the card. Don’t rely on it for anything important.)

Street View