Map with Old Hall marked. Ordanance Survey, Old Series, 1841
G. Barsanti e figli – Grandi gallerie di sculture – Pisa
The history of the Monumental Cemetery began in the 12th century, when Archbishop Ubaldo Lanfranchi (1108-78) brought back shiploads of holy dirt from Golgotha (where Christ was crucified) during the Crusades.
In 1278, Giovanni di Simone (architect of the Leaning Tower) designed a marble cloister to enclose the holy ground, which became the primary cemetery for Pisa’s upper class until 1779. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the walls of the Camposanto were decorated with frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi, Spinello Aretino, Benozzo Gozzoli, Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano, and Piero di Puccio.
On the back:
Les Thermes de Caracalla. A L’etat actuel et en restauration. De L’oeuvre recemment publiée. Par Le Chev. J. Ripostelli
La Grande Salle Avec Le Bassin Pour Les Bains. | D’eau Froide Frigidarium
(The Baths of Caracalla. At the current state and in restoration. From the newly published work* by the Chev. J. Ripostelli
The Great Room With The Basin For The Baths | Cold Water Frigidarium)
Behind the scene of the theatre stands a large rectangular enclosure, one hundred and eighty-three feet long and one hundred and forty-eight wide, surrounded by a Doric colonnade, having twenty-two columns on the longer sides and seventeen on the shorter. The columns are constructed of volcanic tufa, fluted two-thirds of their height, covered with stucco and painted, the lower part red, and the upper alternately red and yellow, except the two centre ones of the east and west sides, the upper parts of which are blue. The surrounding walls were also covered with stucco, painted red below, with yellow above. On the northern side there was a direct communication with both theatres, and the portico of the building must have been of great utility to the spectators, affording additional shelter from the rains when the porticos of the great theatre might have been crowded.
At the time when this building was excavated (1766 and several following years) it was supposed to be a barrack, and obtained the name of the Soldiers’ Quarters. Afterwards, however, from its situation near the Forum Triangulare, it came to be considered as a market-place, and was called the Forum Nundinarium, or weekly market. But the arguments on which this view rests are far from being convincing. That it was a sort of barrack hardly admits of a doubt, both from the nature of the place and the objects found in it ; but it may be a question whether it was intended for the soldiery or for the gladiators exhibited in the amphitheatre. That a town like Pompeii must have had accommodation for its garrison is evident enough, and the building in question seems excellently adapted for such a purpose. The arms found in it, however, were exclusively of the kind used by gladiators ; not a single soldier’s weapon was discovered, while the paintings and graffiti had also reference to gladiatorial combats. Among these graffiti, traced with a hard point on the surface of the ninth column of the east side, was the representation of a fighting gladiator, with these letters, XX Valerius. It has been detached from the wall and carried to the Museum. From these circumstances, Garrucci designated the place as a ludus gladiatorius or school for gladiators, in which view he has been followed by Overbeck.
From Pompeii. Its history, buildings, and antiquities (1871)
Panorama looking approximately south.
c.1905 (undivided back).
More images, see Pompeii category.
The North Hall, or that portion of the building situated to northward of the principal staircase, is intended for the Domesticated Animals, as well as examples of Hybrids and other Abnormalities.
The chief exhibits comprise Horses, Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Dogs, and Rabbits. One of the main objects of this series is to show the leading characteristics of the well-established breeds, both British and foreign. In addition to Domesticated Animals properly so called, there are also exhibited examples of what may be termed Semi-Domesticated Animals, such as white or parti-coloured Rats and Mice.
Among the Sheep, attention may be directed to the four-homed and fat-tailed breeds, and also to the small breed from the island of Soa, as well as the curious spiral-homed Wallachian Sheep. The so-called wild cattle of Chillingham Park are included in this series, since they are not truly wild animals, but are descended from a domesticated breed. The celebrated greyhound “Fullerton” is shown among the series of Dogs, which also comprises two fine examples of the Afghan Greyhound. Small-sized models of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, and Pigs also form a feature of the series. A hybrid between the Zebra and the Ass is shown in one of the cases
A general guide to the British museum (Natural history) (1908)
The Peristyle, House of Vettil, restored, Pompeii, Italy–Pompeii is an ancient town of Campania, situated on the shore of the Bay of Naples, almost at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. It was destroyed A.D. 79, and after its discovered in modern times, has been known as a place of world-wide fame, and having the most interesting relics preserved to us from antiquity
From Atlas Obscura:
In 1804, Napoleon, then in charge of northern Italy, passed the Edict of Saint-Cloud. On the heels of the 1835 cholera epidemic, as churches began to move stacked bodies out of overburdened catacombs and new burials took up the remaining urban space, plans were finally made for a monumental cemetery on the outskirts of town.
Designed by the famous Genovese architect Carlo Barabino in a Neo-Classical style, the Staglieno Cemetery (Cimitero Monumentale di Staglieno) opened in 1851. A compromise between the formality of the traditional orderly camposanto layout and the newly fashionable wilderness style of boschetto irregulare, seen in Père Lachaise in Paris, the grounds included cloisters, garden paths, and a reproduction of the famous Pantheon in Rome. The new cemetery quickly became the fashionable death option, and increasingly was a showcase for world-class sculpture.