Chatsworth House, England


The Painted Hall, Chatsworth House.
1900s
Publisher: A.P. Co (Artistic Publishing Co?), 9 Bury Court, Mary Axe, London

Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England, in the Derbyshire Dales, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north-east of Bakewell and 9 miles (14 km) west of Chesterfield. The seat of the Duke of Devonshire, it has been home to the Cavendish family since 1549, standing on the east bank of the River Derwent, across from low hills between the Derwent and Wye valleys. The house is set in expansive parkland backed by wooded, rocky hills that rise to heather moorland.

The 4th Earl of Devonshire, who would become the 1st Duke in 1694 for helping to put William of Orange on the English throne, was an advanced Whig and forced to retire to Chatsworth during the reign of King James II. This called for a rebuilding of the house, which began in 1687. Cavendish aimed initially to reconstruct only the south wing with the State Apartments and so decided to retain the Elizabethan courtyard plan, although its layout was becoming increasingly unfashionable. He enjoyed building and reconstructed the East Front, which included the Painted Hall and Long Gallery, followed by the West Front from 1699 to 1702. The North Front was completed in 1707 just before he died.

Wikipedia.

In 1549, at the behest of his wife, Bess of Hardwick, Sir William Cavendish bought the land from the Leche family (relations of Bess’s) for £600. Recent
work for the Chatsworth Master Plan (2005-2018) has uncovered possible traces of this earlier Tudor house in the Baroque building’s northern cellars. William and Bess started construction of their house in 1552, but William did not live to see its completion, as he died in 1557. Although Bess of Hardwick completed the building work, the house was entailed to the eldest son from her marriage to William Cavendish, “my bad son Henry” and she made Hardwick her primary residence in 1590. Henry sold the house to his younger brother William (who became the 1st Earl of Devonshire in 1618). The Elizabethan house was successively rebuilt by the 1st, 4th and 6th Dukes, obtaining its current form with the 6th Duke’s major additions and alterations as designed by Sir Jeffry Wyatville, which were implemented c.1820-1841.

Timeline of the Cavendish amily and some of their major properties” (PDF)


Chatsworth House–Great Hall
c.1910
Publisher: Thomas Taylor & Son
“From Photographs taken by special permission of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire.”

First impressions count. When guests are welcomed to Chatsworth, this is one of the first rooms they see. William, 1st Duke of Devonshire built the Painted Hall between 1689 and 1694, the only original feature is the painted decoration on the walls and ceiling. Whilst still Earl of Devonshire he chose to flatter the monarch by decorating the hall with scenes from the life of Julius Caesar, he was elevated to Duke in the year the room was completed.
Chatsworth House: room cards (PDF)

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Bedouin Camp


Campement de bédouines au désert
Dated 1923
Publishers: Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo

Livestock and herding, principally of goats, sheep and dromedary camels comprised the traditional livelihoods of Bedouins. These were used for meat, dairy products, and wool. Most of the staple foods that made up the Bedouins’ diet were dairy products. Camels, in particular, had numerous cultural and functional uses. Having been regarded as a “gift from God”, they were the main food source and method of transportation for many Bedouins.[16] In addition to their extraordinary milking potentials under harsh desert conditions, their meat was occasionally consumed by Bedouins. As a cultural tradition, camel races were organized during celebratory occasions, such as weddings or religious festivals.

Some Bedouin societies live in arid regions. In areas where rainfall is very unpredictable, a camp will be moved irregularly, depending on the availability of green pasture. Where winter rainfall is more predictable in regions further south, some Bedouin people plant grain along their migration routes. This proves a resource for the livestock throughout the winter. In regions such as western Africa, where there is more predictable rainfall, the Bedouin practice transhumance. They plant crops near permanent homes in the valleys where there is more rain and move their livestock to the highland pastures.
Wikipedia.

Grass House, Hawaii


Grass Hut in Hawaii
Postmarked & dated 1931
Publisher: The Island Curio Co.

The grass house, or hale, followed the basic construction pattern common throughout Polynesia. The wooden framework consisted of ridegpole, rafters, and purlins or horizontal supports running between vertical wall posts. Thatching material – most commonly sweet-smelling pili grass – was tied to the purlins in bundles with thatch at the ridgepoles carefully layered and braided to prevent rain and wind from entering the house. Other thatching materials included various grasses, pandanus leaves, ti, sugar cane leaves and banana trunk fiber. Lashing was done with braided `uki`uki grass, coconut husk fiber or `ie`ie; no nails were used. Hale typically had a small door opening and no windows.
HawaiiHistory.org

Monkey, Hôtel Ruisseau Des Singes, Chiffa, Algeria


GORGES DE LA CHIFFA. – Chalet-Hotel du Ruisseau des Singes  – Amusement des Visiteurs
(Hotel of the River of Moneys – Entertainment for visitors)
Publisher: Photo Albert

Google Maps (location)

The charming mountain village of Chréa was the first ski resort created by the French in Algeria. It quickly became a famous resort. Its small wooden chalets almost reminded us of the Vosges or the Jura. The snow cover was capricious and the gradient was slight, but you could still enjoy skiing in winter. Nowadays, nobody skis on the spot during the winter season but the snowy landscapes remain grandiose. In summer, it is pleasant to go there to find some coolness and avoid the torrid heat of the Mitidja. At the site called “le Ruisseau des Singes” (because of the many monkeys that frequent the area and that you will see from the road), you will find a very pleasant hotel complex with cafeteria and restaurant.
Petit Futé Travel Guide: Chrea National Park

Anne Hathaway’s Cottage, Shottery, England


Interior of Anne Hathaway’s Cottage
(Parlour)
c.1910
Publisher: Harvey Barton & Son, Bristol

Google Street View (exterior).

Anne Hathaway’s Cottage is a twelve-roomed farmhouse where Anne Hathaway, the wife of William Shakespeare, lived as a child in the village of Shottery, Warwickshire, England, about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Stratford-upon-Avon. Spacious, and with several bedrooms, it is now set in extensive gardens. The earliest part of the house was built prior to the 15th century; the higher part is 17th century. The house was known as Hewlands Farm in Shakespeare’s day and had more than 90 acres (36 hectares) of land attached to it; to call it a cottage is really a misnomer, as it is much larger than the term usually means. As in many houses of the period, it has multiple chimneys to spread the heat evenly throughout the house during winter. The largest chimney was used for cooking. It also has visible timber framing, typical of vernacular Tudor architecture.
Wikipedia.

Anne Hathaway’s Cottage was originally a farmhouse. It was built in 1463 of cruck construction, when the building would have comprised of just three rooms. The kitchen and parlour still remain from the original medieval construction. The first Hathaway to live in the cottage was Anne’s grandfather John Hathaway, who was a tenant sheep farmer. Anne, later Shakespeare’s wife, was born in the cottage in 1556.
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust

The House of Agnes, Canterbury, England


Canterbury “The House of Agnes” (“Dickens”)
1918-1921 (1d postage)
Publishers: E. Crow & Son, Canterbury

Google Street View.

The history of the House of Agnes goes back in the days when it was a travellers inn as far back as the 13th Century, and is so named as it was the home of Agnes Wickfield in Charles Dickens’ story David Copperfield. Several passages in the book describe aspects of both the exterior and interior of our historic building.
House of Agnes

The inn was one of a number built just outside the Westgate built during the 16th century to exploit the trade generated by visitors to the city. Those who did not arrive before the nightly curfew would have stayed here overnight. It is a three storied jettied timber framed house with three gables to the street frontage. In the late 17th century the first floor bay windows with round-headed centres were added and in the 18th century two ground floor bay windows.
Canterbury History and Archaeological Society

Maison de la Reine Bérengère, Le Mans, France


LE MANS. — Maison de la Reine Bérengère, – Cour
House of Queen Bérengère, courtyard
Note on back dated July 1914 or 1919

Google Street View.

Wikipedia (French).

Berengaria of Navarre was queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile. As is the case with many of the medieval English queens, relatively little is known of her life. Traditionally known as “the only English queen never to set foot in the country”, she may in fact have visited England after her husband’s death, but did not do so before, nor did she see much of Richard during her marriage, which was childless. She did (unusually for the wife of a crusader) accompany him on the start of the Third Crusade, but mostly lived in his French possessions, where she gave generously to the church, despite difficulties in collecting the pension she was due from Richard’s brother and successor John after she became a widow.
Wikipedia (English)

Bérengère (ca. 1165-1230) was Queen of the English as the wife of King Richard I of England. Musée de la reine Bérengère is a museum of Le Mans history located in three half-timbered merchant’s houses, ca. 1230. The museum is located on the old High Street that served to connect all the medieval city, both canonical and aristocratic houses. It is in the area known as la cité Plantagenêt. After being seized by William I of England, Le Mans fell into the hands of the Plantagenets in the mid-12th century. The houses were restored by Adolphe Singher (1836-1910) and acquired by the city in 1924.
CurateND

Château de Malmaison, Paris


MALMAISON (S.-et-O.) — La Chambre de Premier Consul aux Tuileries
Chamber of the First Consul in the Tulleries

1910s
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)

Street View (exterior).

Virtual Tour

The Château de Malmaison is a French château situated near the left bank of the Seine, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of the centre of Paris, in the municipality of Rueil-Malmaison. Formerly the residence of Empress Joséphine de Beauharnais, along with the Tuileries it was the headquarters of the French government from 1800 to 1802, and Napoleon’s last residence in France at the end of the Hundred Days in 1815.
Wikipedia.

The château de Malmaison, purchased by Josephine in 1799 was, together with the Tuileries, the French government’s headquarters from 1800 to 1802. When Napoleon moved to Saint-Cloud, Josephine stayed in Malmaison and commissioned a wide range of improvements to the house. She settled in permanently after her divorce in 1809 and died there on May 29, 1814.
Napolean.org

The linear and graceful style that characterises the interior decor of the Château de Malmaison is directly influenced by 18th century art but also features the innovative and visionary mark of the two architects Percier and Fontaine. Their style, created from a combination of Antiquity and Renaissance which they both immersed themselves in on their trip to Rome, is reflected in this old residence which became the archetype of consular style. There are no shortage of archaeological and historical references: Doric pilasters and stucco columns in the vestibule, decorative motifs inspired by Roman and Pompeian paintings on the library ceiling and in the dining room, and military trophies for bravery painted on the doors of the council chamber. While the mahogany arcs and columns in the library echo the Palladian-style motifs, the painted ceiling alludes to the literary authors whose works Bonaparte appreciated, and the council chamber with its fabric walls supported by fasces and pikes brings to mind the army tents used to decorate parks in Europe.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau


MALMAISON. — La Chambre de Josephine. – C.M.
The Bedroom of Josephine

c.1910
Publisher: C. Malcuit

The most significant transformation was that of Joséphine’s bedchamber, which was given the shape of an almost circular tent thanks to a red sheet enhanced with golden embroidery that was hung on the walls. The ceiling was covered in a painting by Blondel representing Juno on his chariot, and the walls were decorated with numerous mirrors as well as eight flower paintings by Redouté.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau

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Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, England


On back:
Blenheim Palace, and Gardens
c.1910
Publisher: Taunt & Co

Google Maps.
Website.

Virtual tour

Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, stands in a romantic park created by the famous landscape gardener ‘Capability’ Brown. It was presented by the English nation to John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough, in recognition of his victory in 1704 over French and Bavarian troops. Built between 1705 and 1722 and characterized by an eclectic style and a return to national roots, it is a perfect example of an 18th-century princely dwelling.
UNESCO World Heritage listing

Blenheim Palace is a country house in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It is the seat of the Dukes of Marlborough and the only non-royal, non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace. The palace, one of England’s largest houses, was built between 1705 and 1722, and designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. The palace is named after the 1704 Battle of Blenheim, and thus ultimately after Blindheim (also known as Blenheim) in Bavaria. It was originally intended to be a reward to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough for his military triumphs against the French and Bavarians in the War of the Spanish Succession, culminating in the Battle of Blenheim. The land was given as a gift, and construction began in 1705, with some financial support from Queen Anne.
Wikipedia.

In the winter of 1704-5 John Churchill, duke of Marlborough engaged Sir John Vanbrugh to build a house in Woodstock Park, and together they chose a site overlooking the Glyme valley opposite the old royal palace. From the first, in accordance with the queen’s wishes, the house was called Blenheim. The foundation stone was laid on 18 June 1705 on a site prepared by the royal gardener Henry Wise. Building continued at the Crown’s expense until 1712, when, after the Marlboroughs had lost favour, the Treasury ceased to provide funds. On the queen’s death in 1714 the Marlboroughs returned from voluntary exile, but little was done until debts to Blenheim workmen were partially settled in 1716. Building then continued at the Marlboroughs’ expense, and the family took up residence in 1719. After the duke’s death in 1722 Sarah, duchess of Marlborough, completed the chief features of Vanbrugh’s house plan, together with outworks such as the Grand Bridge, the Triumphal Arch, and the Column of Victory. Her work was substantially complete by the early 1730s
A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 12, Wootton Hundred (South) Including Woodstock (includes a floor plan)


Blenheim Palace, Italian Gardens
c.1910
Publisher: Taunt & Co

Kirknewton House, Kirknewton, Scotland


Kirknewton House, Kirknewton
1900s

Google Maps.

In slightly more recent times, Kirknewton House, which lies just to the south of the village, had its origins (as Meadowbank House) in the 17th century. The current house is a reworking of the original by the architect William Playfair for Alexander Maconochie, Lord Meadowbank in 1835. Kirknewton House is screened by trees from nearby roads and from the village itself. The most obvious evidence of its existence is the entrance lodge beside the start of the drive to the house at the south end of the village.
Wikipedia.

Kirknewton House, from 17th century
T-plan mansion, incorporating the surviving wing of a tall Georgian house. Stripped down to rubble with Scots baronial additions, c.1835, by Playfair for Lord Meadowbank (when he was creating Bonaly Tower for Lord Cockburn, and baronialising Craigcrook for Lord Jeffrey). Good balustraded screen wall to offices to the north. The lodge (now Huntingtower Inn), probably also by Playfair, takes the form of a square tower with square ashlar turrets, tall dormer-windowed gallery-wing adjacent.

Canmore