ROUEN. — Vue prize du Pont Transbordeur. — View taken from the transporting-bridge.
Date on back 1918
Publisher: Édouard Crété
Berengaria of Navarre was queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile. As is the case with many of the medieval English queens, relatively little is known of her life. Traditionally known as “the only English queen never to set foot in the country”, she may in fact have visited England after her husband’s death, but did not do so before, nor did she see much of Richard during her marriage, which was childless. She did (unusually for the wife of a crusader) accompany him on the start of the Third Crusade, but mostly lived in his French possessions, where she gave generously to the church, despite difficulties in collecting the pension she was due from Richard’s brother and successor John after she became a widow.
Bérengère (ca. 1165-1230) was Queen of the English as the wife of King Richard I of England. Musée de la reine Bérengère is a museum of Le Mans history located in three half-timbered merchant’s houses, ca. 1230. The museum is located on the old High Street that served to connect all the medieval city, both canonical and aristocratic houses. It is in the area known as la cité Plantagenêt. After being seized by William I of England, Le Mans fell into the hands of the Plantagenets in the mid-12th century. The houses were restored by Adolphe Singher (1836-1910) and acquired by the city in 1924.
MALMAISON (S.-et-O.) — La Chambre de Premier Consul aux Tuileries
Chamber of the First Consul in the Tulleries
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)
The Château de Malmaison is a French château situated near the left bank of the Seine, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of the centre of Paris, in the municipality of Rueil-Malmaison. Formerly the residence of Empress Joséphine de Beauharnais, along with the Tuileries it was the headquarters of the French government from 1800 to 1802, and Napoleon’s last residence in France at the end of the Hundred Days in 1815.
The château de Malmaison, purchased by Josephine in 1799 was, together with the Tuileries, the French government’s headquarters from 1800 to 1802. When Napoleon moved to Saint-Cloud, Josephine stayed in Malmaison and commissioned a wide range of improvements to the house. She settled in permanently after her divorce in 1809 and died there on May 29, 1814.
The linear and graceful style that characterises the interior decor of the Château de Malmaison is directly influenced by 18th century art but also features the innovative and visionary mark of the two architects Percier and Fontaine. Their style, created from a combination of Antiquity and Renaissance which they both immersed themselves in on their trip to Rome, is reflected in this old residence which became the archetype of consular style. There are no shortage of archaeological and historical references: Doric pilasters and stucco columns in the vestibule, decorative motifs inspired by Roman and Pompeian paintings on the library ceiling and in the dining room, and military trophies for bravery painted on the doors of the council chamber. While the mahogany arcs and columns in the library echo the Palladian-style motifs, the painted ceiling alludes to the literary authors whose works Bonaparte appreciated, and the council chamber with its fabric walls supported by fasces and pikes brings to mind the army tents used to decorate parks in Europe.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau
The most significant transformation was that of Joséphine’s bedchamber, which was given the shape of an almost circular tent thanks to a red sheet enhanced with golden embroidery that was hung on the walls. The ceiling was covered in a painting by Blondel representing Juno on his chariot, and the walls were decorated with numerous mirrors as well as eight flower paintings by Redouté.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau
Following the partition of the Carolingian Empire – made official in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun – imperial power waned significantly. At the time, numerous coin striking workshops were scattered right across the territory that constitutes modern-day France. . . . For several centuries, the number of royal workshops varied. Some were repeatedly closed and reopened due to financial crises, while the needs of the king (financing wars, etc) and new territories annexed by the crown also caused frequent fluctuations in how many were active at any one time. At the end of 1689 there were 22 in total, yet barely two years later this number had risen to 27. The regional workshops gradually disappeared and in 1870 only three remained: Bordeaux, Paris and Strasbourg. By 1878, only Monnaie de Paris was still in operation.
Monnaie de Paris
The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France’s coins. Founded in AD 864 with the Edict of Pistres, it is the world’s oldest continuously running minting institution. . . . A Neoclassical edifice, the Hôtel de la Monnaie was designed by Jacques-Denis Antoine and built from 1767–1775 on the Left Bank of the Seine. The Monnaie was the first major civic monument undertaken by Antoine, yet shows a high level of ingenuity on the part of the architect. Today it is considered a key example of French Neoclassicism in pre-Revolutionary Paris. The building is typified by its heavy external rustication and severe decorative treatment. It boasts one of the longest façades on the Seine; its appearance has been likened to the Italian palazzo tradition.
The abbey was founded in 634 by St. Philibert, who had been the companion of Sts. Ouen and Wandrille at the Merovingian court. Philibert became first abbot but was later on, through the jealousy of certain enemies, obliged to leave Jumièges, and afterwards founded another monastery at Noirmoûtier, where he died about 685. Under the second abbot, St. Achard, Jumièges flourished exceedingly and numbered within its walls nearly a thousand monks. Enjoying the patronage of the dukes of Normandy, the abbey became a great centre of religion and learning, its schools producing, amongst many other scholars, the national historian, William of Jumièges. It reached the zenith of its fame about the eleventh century, and was regarded as a model of perfection for all the monasteries of the province. It was renowned especially for its charity to the poor, being popularly called “Jumièges l’Aumônier”. In the ninth century it was pillaged and burnt to the ground by the Normans, but was rebuilt on a grander scale by William, Duke of Normandy, surnamed Longue-Epée. The church was enlarged in 1256, and again restored in 1573. The abbots of Jumièges took part in all the great affairs of the Church and nation; one of them, Robert, became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1040; many others became bishops in France, and some were also raised to the cardinalitial dignity. The fortunes of the abbey suffered somewhat through the English invasion of the fifteenth century, but it recovered and maintained its prosperity and high position until the whole province was devastated by the Huguenots and the Wars of Religion. In 1649, during the abbacy of Francis III, Jumièges was taken over by the Maurist Congregation, under which rule some of its former grandeur was resuscitated. The French Revolution, however, closed its career as a monastery, and only its majestic ruins now remain to show what it was in the days of its splendour.
Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
Duke Louis of Orleans (1372-1407), brother of Charles VI, whilst battling with the Duke of Burgundy for royal power, built a fortress at Pierrefonds in 1397. He thus confirmed his power and took control of trade between Flanders and Burgundy.
In 1617, the cattle was dismantled under the order of King Louis XIII to prevent it from becoming a refuge for his enemies. The towers were ripped open. This ruin soon became forgotten until it was bought in 1810 by Napoleon I. Its appearance of a romantic ruin made it a very popular site in the 19th century.
In 1857, the Emperor Napoleon III (1808-1873) wanted to turn Pierrefonds into an imperial residence. This project was never completed and the castle became a museum and was opened to the public in 1867. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814- 1879), the architect entrusted with its restoration, employed architectural concepts to recreate a perfect castle such as might have existed in the Middle Ages. After his death, his son-in-law Maurice Ouradou continued the work until 1885, without ever completing it.
Chateau Pierrefonds guide book
The Rue de Boigne was constructed between 1824- 1830, thanks to the generosity of General Count Boigne. It connects three of the major sites in Chambery: the Elephants Fountain, the Place Saint Leger, and the Dukes of Savoy Castle. Its architecture, complete with high arched porticos or Arcades, was inspired by Turin Italy. Today it is lined with upscale stores and hotels.
Website (in French).
The Château de Chazeron is a castle situated in the commune of Loubeyrat in the French département of Puy-de-Dôme, 3 km (1.9 mi) north-west of Châtel-Guyon. Originally a medieval castle, Chazeron was altered in the 17th century by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. He built a staircase on the site of the keep and added an arcaded gallery. The moat was filled in, three of the external walls were demolished and two wings were added.
This is the work of a priest from the 19th century, l’Abbé Fouré, who was also a painter and wood sculptor. At age 55, Abbe Foure suffered a stroke, which left him without hearing and speech ; as a result, he decided to retreat as a hermit in the cliffs of Rotheneuf. He spent the last 15 years of his life (from approximately 1894 to 1910) shaping the granite to create more than 300 statues of strange and grotesque faces and characters. The priest took his inspiration from various sources : religious myths as well as pagan legends and tales, but also from the notable events of his time. He represented the story of the Rotheneuf, a local family of fishermen who lived in the 16th/17th centuries. They became pirates and established their domination in the region by smuggling over most of the Emerald Coast, gathering an immense fortune (as the legend has it) before being chased during the French Revolution. The ensemble also features the French explorer and navigator Jacques Cartier, as well as famous Breton saints, such as Saint Budoc.
The Culture Trip
DEAUVILLE – PLAGE FLEURIE – Les Tennis vus vers les Jetées
(Tennis looking towards the piers)
c.1940 but from an earlier photo
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques Strasbourg
Deauville was conceived with tourists in mind. It emerged from the sand dunes in the 1860s, thanks to the vision of one Dr Joseph Olliffe and his close friend, Emperor Napoleon III’s half-brother, the Duke de Morny. At the end of the 1850s, only marshes lay between the sea and small hillside village here. Dr Olliffe convinced wealthy backers to invest in a major scheme to drain the marshes and create a seaside resort from nothing. The resort was designed by architect Desle-François Breney, inspired by Baron Haussmann’s redevelopment of Paris. Aided by an all-important, brand-new railway line, the resort came into full bloom within just four years. Grand hotels built in the Anglo-Norman timber-frame style, smart bathing facilities and a stylish racecourse catered to elegant Parisians.