In 1892 a funicular was built to reduce the effort of scaling the hill; it became known as the ascenseur or elevator. The base was at the lower end of Rue Dragon. The upper station led directly onto a footpath to the terrace beneath the basilica, leaving only a short climb to the level of the crypt at 162 m (531 ft). Construction took two years.
The funicular consisted of two cabins each weighing 13 tons when empty, circulating on parallel cogged tracks. The movement was powered by a “hydraulic balance” system: each cabin, in addition to its two floors capable of holding fifty passengers total, was equipped with a 12 cubic meter tank of water. The cabins were linked by a cable; the tank of the descending cabin was filled with water and that of the ascending cabin emptied. This ballasting started the system moving. The vertical distance between the two stations was 84 m (276 ft). The water collected at the foot of the apparatus at the end of each trip was brought back to the top with a 25-horsepower pump—true horsepower, because the pump was powered by steam. Travel time was two minutes, but filling the upper tank took more than ten minutes, forcing waits between departures, in spite of often considerable crowds. The last adventure after the ascent was crossing the 100-meter footbridge up the steep slope. Built by Gustave Eiffel, the footbridge was only 5 metres (16 ft) wide and very exposed to the mistral winds.
Wikipedia: Notre-Dame de la Garde
Publisher: Levy & Neurdein Reunis (1920-1932). Image might be earlier.
Today, Eze retains an aura of a town eternally under siege. There is still only a single entrance to the walled portion of the village. Visitors who approach the now doorless postern gate come eye to eye with a gun port. Once through the gate, they enter a small clearing ringed by high walls, from which it is easy to imagine spears, rocks and boiling oil being flung. Another arched opening, almost a tunnel, must be broached before entering La Placette, a small square that is the town’s largest open space save for the clearing in front of the church.
“Photo by R.J. Divecha for S. B Varma & Co., Cawnpore”
For the British, the butchering of seventy-three women and 124 children at Cawnpore in July was the single most traumatic episode of the uprisings of 1857 (figures given in David 254). When the rebels were defeated and the atrocity discovered, it provoked a dreadful and indiscriminate revenge, and continued to reverberate in the British consciousness for many years to come. The sympathy that it aroused found expression in a monument, originally raised over the well itself, displaying an angel with lowered eyes. This was guarded” by a stone screen reminiscent of church architecture – and thus of Christian civilisation in general. In this way, the monument as a whole served as a rebuke and a justification of empire as well as a memorial.
The Victorian Web: An Icon of Empire. The Angel at the Cawnpore Memorial, by Baron Marochetti (1805-1867)
After the revolt was suppressed, the British dismantled Bibighar. They raised a memorial railing and cross at the site of the well in which the bodies of the British women and children had been dumped. Meanwhile, the British forces conducted a punitive action under the lead of General Autrum by blowing down Nana Sahib’s palace in Bithoor with cannons, in which Indian women and children including Nana Sahib’s young daughter Mainavati were burned alive. Also, the inhabitants of Cawnpore were forced to pay £30,000 for the creation of the memorial as a ‘punishment’ for not coming to the aid of the British women and children in Bibighar. The Angel of the Resurrection was created by Baron Carlo Marochetti and completed in 1865. It has been called by various names throughout the centuries and came to be the most visited statue of British India. The chief proponent and private funder was Charlotte, Countess Canning, wife of the first Viceroy of India, Earl Canning. She approached her childhood friend, Marochetti, for models. In turn, Marochetti suggested that other sculptors be invited. Following the Countess’s death, Earl Canning took over the commission. Canning rejected a number of designs accepting, in the end, a version of Marochetti’s Crimean War memorial at Scutari, Turkey. The understated figure is an angel holding two branches of palm fronds across her chest. Despite assurances, ‘The Angel’ had some damage during the Independence celebrations of 1947 and she was later moved from her original site over the Bibi Ghar well to a garden at the side of All Soul’s Church, Kanpore (Kanpur Memorial Church).
The remains of a circular ridge of the well can still be seen at the Nana Rao Park, built after Indian independence. The British also erected the All Souls Memorial Church, in memory of the victims. An enclosed pavement outside the church marks the graves of over 70 British men captured and executed on 1 July 1857, four days after the Satichaura Ghat massacre. The marble Gothic screen with “mournful seraph” was transferred to the churchyard of the All Souls Church after Indian independence in 1947. The memorial to the British victims was replaced with a bust of Tatya Tope.
At the centre of the north Indian city of Kanpur sit fifty acres of urban green space. Surrounded by a brightly painted iron railing, this city-owned oasis within the bustling industrial metropolis is Nana Rao Park. Like many civic spaces, it contains a commemorative statue: in this case it is a likeness of the brilliant leader of Sepoy rebels during the 1857 uprising, Tantia Topi. This statue is relatively new, barely fifty years old; the park is much older, first laid out over 145 years ago. The statue is surrounded by four marble frogs, and stands overlooking a large, empty, sandstone circle. Without prior knowledge, a visitor to this park today, and indeed perhaps most of the current residents of the city, would have no inkling that the blank sandstone circle within this pleasant but otherwise non-descript civic oasis was once the most venerated locale of the British raj. Nano Rao Park was, before 1949, the Cawnpore Memorial Gardens, and the sandstone circle overlooked by the Tantia Topi statue is all that is now left of the memorial well monument, built on the site of the final resting place of over 125 British women and children killed in Cawnpore on 15 July 1857, amidst the upheaval of the 1857–58 “Mutiny.”
Angel of Empire: The Cawnpore Memorial Well as a British Site of Imperial Remembrance (behind paywall)
The Rumi Darwaza served as the entrance to the city of Lucknow; it is 60 feet high and was built by Nawab Asafuddaula (r. 1775-1797) in 1784. It is also known as the Turkish Gateway, as it was erroneously thought to be identical to the gateway at Constantinople. It is the west entrance to the Great Imambara and is embellished with lavish decorations.
British Library Online Gallery
Rumi Darwaza, also known as Turkish Gate, was named after a great 13th century Muslim Sufi mystic, Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi. This sixty foot tall gate was built by Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah in the year 1784. The gate is a magnificent example of Awadhi style architecture and is regarded as a gateway to the city of Lucknow. A huge lamp was placed atop the gate during the era of the Awadh Nawabs to light up the passage at night. The sight became all the more captivating when the streams of water gushing from the beautiful bud-shaped fountains close by formed an arch on the gateway.
For well over 30 years the Canning College remained in the Kaisar Bagh building, but this site was not suitable for the development of a big residential institution. The provincial Government was prevailed upon to come to its assistance and it readily consented to purchase the college building for a sum of Rs. 2,10,000/- to house the Provincial Museum. In 1905 the Government handed over to the college the extensive walled garden of about 90 acres on the north of the river Gomti, popularly known as “Badshah Bagh”, originally a garden house of King Nasir-ud-Din Haidar, and, since the pacification of Avadh, the Lucknow residence of the Maharaja of Kapurthala. Of the old royal building of this garden, only the Lal Baradari, one lofty and handsome gate and one canal are still present today.
After another financial aid by Maharaja Sir Bhagwati Singh of Balrampur, the implementation of a new building started taking shape. The plans of the building were entrusted to the well-known architect. Sir Swinton Jacob, who prepared an impressive design in the Indo-Saracenic style. The plans of the building were considered by the experts to be so distinctive and elegant that they were subsequently sent for demonstration at the Exhibition held in London on the occasion of the Festival of Empire in 1911.
Publisher: Ahmed Kasim & Co, Poona